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The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the

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The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the [#permalink]

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The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing canals so that the water now empties into the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River.

(A) Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing
(B) Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing
(C) Rivers, which originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan but have been redirected by the construction of
(D) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by the construction of
(E) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, have been redirected through the construction of
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by mau5 on 30 Nov 2013, 13:48, edited 1 time in total.
Added the OA
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Re: Chicago and Calumet Rivers [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2010, 09:03
I marked B because redirected through looks wrong idiom. Can someone confirm this?
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Re: Chicago and Calumet Rivers [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2010, 10:27
Even i marked B.

Eliminated E for the same reason as stated above.
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Re: Chicago and Calumet Rivers [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2010, 12:23
so the answer is not B, i tried.
which one is correct one?
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Re: Chicago and Calumet Rivers [#permalink]

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IMO E. Clearly the choices are between B and E. A, C, D are improper sentence constructions in itself.

Now for B, past perfect (had) is not appropriate. There is no past tense later in the sentence to which this event can relate to; instead present perfect (have) is used. So this is incorrect. Possibly "had" could have been correct in case it was written "rivers had originally flowed into ..., but then their course was diverted by..."

That leaves E - which seems to have no flaws.

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Re: Chicago and Calumet Rivers [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2010, 00:06
Nice question.

The Chicago and Calumet Rivers, [strike]originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan[/strike], have been redirected through the construction of canals so that the water now empties into the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River.

E it is.
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Re: Chicago and Calumet Rivers [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2010, 04:21
E is my Take as well.

B Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing . Had and constructing are spoiling the show
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2012, 03:47
In B 'by constructing' refers back to the rivers which is not the case...E is better
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the [#permalink]

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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2013, 02:28
Can someone explain this one plz!

Thx you :)
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the [#permalink]

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The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing canals so that the water now empties into the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River.

(A) Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing (-ing modifier is not correct)
(B) Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing (past perfect is unnecessary no other past even is mentioned for sequencing )
(C) Rivers, which originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan but have been redirected by the construction of (fragmented sentence first part before but has no verb)
(D) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by the construction of (same mistake as A, -ing modifer having bean is 99% wrong)
(E) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, have been redirected through the construction of (perfect S,ing,verb...)

only E follows correct grammatical construction.
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the [#permalink]

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HERE IS THE COMPLETE DISSECTION


The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing canals so that the water now empties into the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River.

(A) Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing.

The use of “having been” is incorrect. We do not expect a “so that” construction after “having been”. “so that” introduces a consequence to an action. “having been” introduces the concept of premise. They do not go well together. Moreover we should expect more informations after “having been”, which makes this answer a fragment.

(B) Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing.

The use of “had” is incorrect. If past perfect is used in a sentence make sure that:
1. it is really needed (the two events are related, need a temporal regulation, and the earliest event is preceded by a past perfect verb).
2. The verb expressing the second temporal event is in past tense.

(C) Rivers, which originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan but have been redirected by the construction of.

“comma+which” refers to the item directly preceding “which” -except for cases in which a prepositional phrase is squeezed in, between the modifier's target and the comma preceding the modifier, because it cannot be logically placed elsewhere in the sentence. In this sentence the use of “which” is correct, but this rule is good to recall. What makes this sentence wrong is:
1. The lack of a comma after “Lake Michigan” we already have a subordinator (“which”) we do not want another one in the same sentence.
2. The use of “but” baffles and is incorrect. Because of “But” The entire sentence structure is screwed.

(D) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by the construction of

Once agin “having been” fits terribly beside “so that”. “But” bewilders the sentence’s meaning.

(E) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, have been redirected through the construction of
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2015, 05:54
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2015, 01:31
amitdesai16 wrote:
IMO E. Clearly the choices are between B and E. A, C, D are improper sentence constructions in itself.

Now for B, past perfect (had) is not appropriate. There is no past tense later in the sentence to which this event can relate to; instead present perfect (have) is used. So this is incorrect. Possibly "had" could have been correct in case it was written "rivers had originally flowed into ..., but then their course was diverted by..."

That leaves E - which seems to have no flaws.

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Please give Kudos if you like my explanation. Thank you


I dont think so.

past perfect can go with present perfect. this case is proved by a sentence in gmatprep" immune to, immune from " and is proved by grammar books. some grammar book say that past perfect can go with past simple and present perfect.

so, B is correct regarding this point .
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2015, 01:52
the only error in B is "constructing canal"

by doing is used to show the method the subject uses to do the action in main clause. there is no reason grammatically to use constructing here.

second, b seem that they have been redirected by canal, not by construction of cannal, which is the intended meaning.
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2015, 01:58
bakfed wrote:
The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing canals so that the water now empties into the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River.

(A) Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing
(B) Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing
(C) Rivers, which originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan but have been redirected by the construction of
(D) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by the construction of
(E) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, have been redirected through the construction of


this is from gmatprep. the oa is e.

however, I do not like this question.

in e, following show an action which happen in the same time frame as redirected. I do not think this is logic

though the main action is in present perfect, happening from a point in the past to present, and following happen at the beginning of this period and we can consider that following is used loggically, I feel hard to see the logicness.

a very hard question.
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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2015, 02:21
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(A) Rivers originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by constructing --- There is a fundamental flaw in parallelism in this choice. Two ICs, that are joined by a conjunction such as ‘but' have to be in the same format; here, one is a clause and the other is not complete

(B) Rivers had originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but they have been redirected by constructing----- In the hierarchy of tenses, the top is the past perfect, then a past tense and then the present perfect. One cannot jump from past perfect to present perfect without traveling through a past tense. So grammatically wrong

(C) Rivers, which originally flowed into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan but have been redirected by the construction of -- -- This is a forthright fragment because of the intrusion of relative pronoun ‘which’.

(D) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, but having been redirected by the construction of --- The first part has no verb - a fragment.

(E) Rivers, originally flowing into the St. Lawrence by way of Lake Michigan, have been redirected through the construction of --- A correct simple sentence with a modifier phrase that modifies the subject of the clause. 2. Is also idiomatically better because of using the preposition ‘through’ to indicate a physical flow of water through the canals -- correct

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Re: The Chicago and Calumet Rivers originally flowed into the   [#permalink] 25 Oct 2015, 02:21
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