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The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to

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The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to [#permalink] New post 20 Feb 2011, 08:20
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The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to adjacent cells, can provoke dangerous inflammation; the resultant autoimmune disease, characterized by cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are known as "rheumatoid arthritis."

A) cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are
B) cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is
C) cartilage and bone that become damaged although the immune system does not actually attack them, are
D) damaged cartilage and bone although the immune system does not actually attack them, are
E) damaged cartilage and bone although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is

Why not E?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by nikhilsrl on 06 Mar 2011, 07:28, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: parellelism [#permalink] New post 20 Feb 2011, 09:11
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How come this is a //ism issue? This is an issue of S-V agreement and altered intent. The subject is the singular 'disease' and the verb should be ‘is’. B and E are the choices.

E rather distorts the meaning. As per the text the disease is characterized by both cartilage and bone that become damaged; E means to say the disease is characterized by damaged cartilage and bone (alone), leaving bone from the ambit of the damage.

B is the one.
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Re: parellelism [#permalink] New post 20 Feb 2011, 14:42
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Right E distorts the meaning. Because of saying characterised by damaged.
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Re: parellelism [#permalink] New post 20 Feb 2011, 18:24
I cannot understand very well why E distorts the meaning. If someone can try to explain again, I'll be thankful.
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Re: parellelism [#permalink] New post 20 Feb 2011, 22:16
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Hello Daagh,

Sorry about the title - I understood the S-V part but could not decide on the altered intent and hence posted it here. Phrase "altered intent" did not come to my mind and so ended up with "parellelism" :wink: .

Hello Miguelmick,

Let me try to add to what Daagh has already explained:

As per E - damaged cartilage and bone although they are not actually attacked by the immune system
Here "damaged" appearing just before cartilage, seems to modify "cartilage" alone and not "cartilage and bone" as was intended in the original statement in the question.

As per D - cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is
Here "that become damaged" clearly modifies "cartilage and bone". Even though "that become damaged" is next to "bone" the use of "become", a plural verb instead of "becomes" points to "cartilage and bone" instead of just "bone".

Hope this helps.
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Re: Altered Intent [#permalink] New post 23 Feb 2011, 07:17
nikhilsrl - please could you underline the part of the sentence which is in question.

B it is...S-V issue
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Re: parellelism [#permalink] New post 23 Feb 2011, 12:18
Perfect. Thanks a lot for that, Kudos to you.

nikhilsrl wrote:
Hello Daagh,

Sorry about the title - I understood the S-V part but could not decide on the altered intent and hence posted it here. Phrase "altered intent" did not come to my mind and so ended up with "parellelism" :wink: .

Hello Miguelmick,

Let me try to add to what Daagh has already explained:

As per E - damaged cartilage and bone although they are not actually attacked by the immune system
Here "damaged" appearing just before cartilage, seems to modify "cartilage" alone and not "cartilage and bone" as was intended in the original statement in the question.

As per D - cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is
Here "that become damaged" clearly modifies "cartilage and bone". Even though "that become damaged" is next to "bone" the use of "become", a plural verb instead of "becomes" points to "cartilage and bone" instead of just "bone".

Hope this helps.
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Re: Altered Intent [#permalink] New post 24 Feb 2011, 02:29
IMO E. B is trying to the disease is characterized by cartilage. The "and bone" part seems to say that only bones are damaged.
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Re: Altered Intent [#permalink] New post 05 Mar 2011, 23:04
IMO B --> "Meaning is distorted in E"

P.s : Nikhil ,Please underline the sentence in the question.

The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to adjacent cells, can provoke dangerous inflammation; the resultant autoimmune disease, characterized by cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are known as "rheumatoid arthritis."

A) cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are
B) cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is
C) cartilage and bone that become damaged although the immune system does not actually attack them, are
D) damaged cartilage and bone although the immune system does not actually attack them, are
E) damaged cartilage and bone although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is
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Re: Altered Intent [#permalink] New post 07 Mar 2011, 09:24
Interesting question. Lets take an example:

Good people often suffer because they are not able to be tough even when the situation demands.

What does they refer to in the above sentence? It does not refer to people but to good people. In other words, a pronoun not only refers to the noun (people) but also to the adjacent adjective (good).

Coming back to this question, in E, they would refer to damaged cartilage and bone. But this does not make logical sense, since the intent of the question is to say that autoimmune disease is characterized by:

1. cartilage and bone becoming damaged, though
2. cartilage and bone are not actually attacked by the immune system

In short, damaged cartilage and bone not being attacked by the immune system, as depicted in E does not make sense.
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Re: The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to [#permalink] New post 04 Nov 2013, 15:01
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Re: The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to   [#permalink] 04 Nov 2013, 15:01
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