B/w D and E for SVA
E should be the answer because Collisions themselves didn't determine anything...
E for me
Exactly. Determined by is incorrect within the context of this sentence because the planets had no control over their spin, orbit, etc.
determine (DECIDE) Show phonetics
verb [T often passive]
to control or influence something directly, or to decide what will happen:
The number of staff we can take on will be determined by how much money we're allowed to spend.
Your health is determined in part by what you eat.
Eye colour is genetically determined.
[+ question word] FORMAL A pitch inspection will determine whether or not the match will be played.
People should be allowed to determine their own future.