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The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its

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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 22 Nov 2011, 01:49
went with A. Good question
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 23 Nov 2011, 10:29
Between E and A.

I choose E with the thought that when negating None it becomes All. If its all then E is correct.

But, while after negating none (0 ) it is some (1 to 100).

So, it is A. Nice question !
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 23 Nov 2011, 23:47
Conclusion- age of ocean can be measure by the salt content.
argument - salt is carried to the ocean by river and so on.

E is out of track here-- no biological activities mentioned, where as A refers to the argument ....... that the salt carried by the river is to be some what consistent.
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Re: CR Salt content [#permalink] New post 26 Dec 2011, 10:10
hermit84 wrote:
hibloom wrote:
The Earth’s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its oceans. Clearly, therefore, by taking the resulting increase in salt levels in the oceans over the past hundred years and then determining how many centuries of such increases it would have taken the oceans to reach current salt levels from a hypothetical initial salt-free state, the maximum age of the Earth’s oceans can be accurately estimated.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The quantities of dissolved salts deposited by rivers in the Earth’s oceans have not been unusually large during the past hundred years.
(B) At any given time, all the Earth’s rivers have about the same salt levels.
(C) There are salts that leach into the Earth’s oceans directly from the ocean floor.
(D) There is no method superior to that based on salt levels for estimating the maximum age of the Earth’s oceans.
(E) None of the salts carried into the Earth’s oceans by rivers are used up by biological activity in the oceans.


The method is purely based on the observations from the past 100 years, so we need to something which points out the flaw in this method.

(A) The quantities of dissolved salts deposited by rivers in the Earth’s oceans have not been unusually large during the past hundred years. CORRECT. this says the rate of salt deposited in the last 100 years is unusually high. This clearly weakens the argument.
(B) At any given time, all the Earth’s rivers have about the same salt levels. irrelevant
(C) There are salts that leach into the Earth’s oceans directly from the ocean floor. if salt leaches into the oceans directly, it would have done so in the past 100 years as well. so it doesnt point to a flaw in the proposed method.
(D) There is no method superior to that based on salt levels for estimating the maximum age of the Earth’s oceans.
Ignore it
(E) None of the salts carried into the Earth’s oceans by rivers are used up by biological activity in the oceans.
if oceans use salt for biological activities. it would have done so in the past 100 years as well. so it doesnt point to a flaw in the proposed method


Thanks for your explanation for rejecting E
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 28 Jan 2012, 07:10
Argument concludes the following:
(Inc. in salt levels(caused by the continuous flow of rivers) in the past 100 years) X No. of centuries = Oceans' Accurate age

Two questions that I can think of are;
Q1. What if the increase in salt levels in the past 100 years is different from rest of the centuries? Then, we will not be able to accurately determine the age of the oceans.

2. What if there is another way by which salt levels are increasing?

Let us look at the options now. Our main aim is to keep the relevant and throw out the rest.
(A) The quantities of dissolved salts deposited by rivers in the Earth’s oceans have not been unusually large during the past hundred years. Now, look at Q1. What do you think? This option says that Inc. is unusually large in the past 100 years. BINGO.
(B) At any given time, all the Earth’s rivers have about the same salt levels. We're not talking about ALL the earth's rivers. Too extreme.
(C) There are salts that leach into the Earth’s oceans directly from the ocean floor. Weakens the argument. This says that there are other ways by which salt levels are increasing. This means that Inc. because of the continuous flow of rivers may not be the case.
(D) There is no method superior to that based on salt levels for estimating the maximum age of the Earth’s oceans. Nothing about superiority mentioned. Irrelevant.
(E) None of the salts carried into the Earth’s oceans by rivers are used up by biological activity in the oceans. Negating this option does not harm the conclusion. Even if salt are used by bio. activity, the value may be constant, still enabling us to find the age.
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 28 Jan 2012, 10:01
a superb question .Very close between A and E.
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 19 Feb 2012, 17:18
Was confused between B and E :(
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 11 Apr 2012, 14:25
Not sure about A, we are talking about the Age of the worlds oceans, we are talking about millions of years, and if there was a abnormal change in the last 100 I don't think that's going to make a considerable difference.

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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 28 Apr 2012, 07:36
IMO E.
This was a tough one.
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 28 Apr 2012, 09:33
Narrowed it down to A or E, by negating the options A finally remained as the answer choice.
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 09 May 2012, 01:36
at first i went with the option B ..but after going through the explanation i got it...it is A..GUd questions...
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 16 May 2012, 00:23
hibloom wrote:
The Earth’s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its oceans. Clearly, therefore, by taking the resulting increase in salt levels in the oceans over the past hundred years and then determining how many centuries of such increases it would have taken the oceans to reach current salt levels from a hypothetical initial salt-free state, the maximum age of the Earth’s oceans can be accurately estimated.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The quantities of dissolved salts deposited by rivers in the Earth’s oceans have not been unusually large during the past hundred years.
(B) At any given time, all the Earth’s rivers have about the same salt levels.
(C) There are salts that leach into the Earth’s oceans directly from the ocean floor.
(D) There is no method superior to that based on salt levels for estimating the maximum age of the Earth’s oceans.
(E) None of the salts carried into the Earth’s oceans by rivers are used up by biological activity in the oceans.



Between A and E.

E is also a strong contender. However, to negate E one will have to make another assumption. (something like: salts have not been used up by biological activities at a constant rate) which goes far from the argument. Hence, A is the best answere dervied through negation technic.

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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 16 May 2012, 00:43
A

if the rivers deposit 1 KG of salt per year, but 10 years ago there was a surge, and
100 Kg of sald were deposited, and today the ocean has 200 KG, we would think
it is 200 years old.
but fact is it's only 2
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 29 May 2012, 09:55
The Earth’s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its oceans. Clearly, therefore, by taking the resulting increase in salt levels in the oceans over the past hundred years and then determining how many centuries of such increases it would have taken the oceans to reach current salt levels from a hypothetical initial salt-free state, the maximum age of the Earth’s oceans can be accurately estimated.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The quantities of dissolved salts deposited by rivers in the Earth’s oceans have not been unusually large during the past hundred years. (if it is unusually large, this will not reveal the true age of the oceans)
(B) At any given time, all the Earth’s rivers have about the same salt levels. (Out of scope, salt levels of river do not come into the picture. We are concerned about the salt deposited by these rivers in the oceans)
(C) There are salts that leach into the Earth’s oceans directly from the ocean floor. (out of scope)
(D) There is no method superior to that based on salt levels for estimating the maximum age of the Earth’s oceans.( out of scope)
(E) None of the salts carried into the Earth’s oceans by rivers are used up by biological activity in the oceans. (contender. But if we negate A and E, we find A to be stronger)
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 31 May 2012, 00:40
hibloom wrote:
The Earth’s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its oceans. Clearly, therefore, by taking the resulting increase in salt levels in the oceans over the past hundred years and then determining how many centuries of such increases it would have taken the oceans to reach current salt levels from a hypothetical initial salt-free state, the maximum age of the Earth’s oceans can be accurately estimated.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The quantities of dissolved salts deposited by rivers in the Earth’s oceans have not been unusually large during the past hundred years.
(B) At any given time, all the Earth’s rivers have about the same salt levels.
(C) There are salts that leach into the Earth’s oceans directly from the ocean floor.
(D) There is no method superior to that based on salt levels for estimating the maximum age of the Earth’s oceans.
(E) None of the salts carried into the Earth’s oceans by rivers are used up by biological activity in the oceans.


IMO, choice A is the correct one, if the quantities of dissolved salts deposited by rivers in the Earth's oceans have been unusually large during the past hundred years, the estimation will become incorrectly or difficultly to calculate the age of the Earth.
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 07 Jun 2012, 01:11
(A) The quantities of dissolved salts deposited by rivers in the Earth’s oceans have not been unusually large during the past hundred years. - Only when it is confirmed there is no unusually large deposits of salt by rivers into the oceans, will we be able to conclude that the age can be calculated precisely. - Correct
(B) At any given time, all the Earth’s rivers have about the same salt levels. - Irrelevant information - No logical outcome for calculation of the age of earth - Incorrect
(C) There are salts that leach into the Earth’s oceans directly from the ocean floor. - Arguement speaks about salts deposited by the rivers - Irrelevant - Incorrect
(D) There is no method superior to that based on salt levels for estimating the maximum age of the Earth’s oceans. - Arguement only mentions about calcluation of earth's age using the salt deposited by rivers. No mention of any other methods - Irrelevant - Incorrect
(E) None of the salts carried into the Earth’s oceans by rivers are used up by biological activity in the oceans. - If that is the case, then just by calculating the salt deposit by rivers would give us the age of earth. Assuming this does no change to the outcome - Incorrect
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 20 Jun 2012, 08:53
a good question. went with E. But, seems like its A now.
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 24 Jun 2012, 05:24
A close call between A and E. I fell for the E trap because if the biological activity uses up the salt the calculations will be inaccurate. But I think the problem is one of extent. In this case, both A and E are assumptions but
In A: if the salts have been unusually high during the past hundred years then there is a greater probability of a more skewed calculation than in a scenario where some salts are being eaten up by the biological activity.

Also if biological activity consumes the salt, there may be a possibility it does so all along. In that case the calculations may not be thrown off. So, there is still a possibility that calculations are accurate. There maybe a uniform offset in the rates due to the biological activity.
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 22 Aug 2012, 05:39
I think it is 'E'.
'A' is is talking about the total amount of salt deposited by rivers, not the rate. What does the total amount of salt (be it unusually large or unusually small) have to do with the conclusion? the conclusion is about rate of salt increase, not the total amount deposited during the last hundred years.

The only thing mentioned that can affect the 'rate' of salt increase is the biological consumption mentioned in E.
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its [#permalink] New post 25 Aug 2012, 08:03
all the options look competitive here..

negation helps a lot..
this is a very good example to show the importance of technique
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Re: The Earth s rivers constantly carry dissolved salts into its   [#permalink] 25 Aug 2012, 08:03

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