I absolutely love this article. When I first read the 1st sentence "sportsmen...be prisoners of a different game". I wondered what that game was. Now I know that it's the game theory. Actually, I know very little about game theory, most from the movie "A beautiful mind" I watched years ago about John Nash, so I was eager to see what I was about to read this article. I also love the way the writer use the pronoun "it" in paragraph 1, very very nice writing.
This is my answer
[quote="HerrGrau"]1. According to the passage, the attitude referred to in the 8th paragraph reflects:A. The dominant paradigm in drug testing for professional sports
I think the attitude mentioned here is " to test sparingly, expose what is wrong,....rather..." (last sentence in paragraph 7). It's the dominant issues. CorrectB. A consequence of several failed attempts to overhaul drug testing in professional sports
There's nothing about failed attemps to overhaul drug testing. IncorrectC. The views of many active professional athletes
I think It's the attitude of the inspectors, not athletes (cause it would lead to the outcome testing..), by the way, the views of athletes is that they will not get caught. IncorrectD. A departure from the attitude of many of the officials involved in policing professional athletes
There's not a departure here. IncorrectE. The attitude of a small but significant minority of individuals who work in professional sports
What is a small but significant minority here? Incorrect.
2. According to the passage, some mathematicians believe that:
A. The penalties for drug violations in professional sports are too low
Nothing to do with penalties here. IncorrectB. Lack of resources would be the easiest problem to address in drug testing related to professional sports
They think that the only way out is the resources, both positive and negative, to be reported, so lack of resources may be the problem, but the article does not say that it is the easiest problem to address in. Incorrect.C. If professional athletes believed they would get caught using performance enhancing drugs then they would refrain from using them.
From paragraph 6. CorrectD. Drug enforcement officials in some professional sports have more authority than officials in other sports.
Not mentioned. Incorrect.E. If performance enhancing drugs were legalized then far more professional athletes would use them
The legalization of taking drugs is not mentioned. Incorrect3. The author would most likely agree with which of the following statements?A. Game theory should not be used as a model for the behavior of professional athletes considering taking performance enhancing drugs
The author does not say whether game theory should be used nor not. IncorrectB. For many professional athletes aversion to cheating is greater than the desire to win
From 8th paragraph, The desire to win is greater. IncorrectC. In some professional sports it is an exception to be an athlete not using performance enhancing drugs.
From the last sentence of the 8th paragraph. Correct D. Most athletes are motivated to use performance enhancing drugs for financial reasons which outweigh potential punishments if they are caught using drugs.
First, the financial reasons is not mentioned here. Second, they think that they will not get caught. Incorrect.E. Some drug enforcement officials do not conduct thorough investigations into some athletes drug use because of the tightly knit nature of the professional sports community.
What is the wordy object :"the tightly knit nature of the profession.." mean? I don't know, it should also mention customers (fans and sponsors), by the way. Incorrect.
4. What is the main point of the passage?A. A new mathematical theory illustrates that professional athletes considering taking performance enhancing drugs use a cost benefit analysis but ultimately consider the benefits of performance enhancing drugs outweigh the costs of being caught.
Well, It's temping to choose this answer, but in my opinion, the athletes do not think they will get caught. Incorrect.B. The current system of drug enforcement in professional sports allows the motivations of certain stakeholders to limit the system’s power so that athletes are stuck in a prisoners dilemma which rewards cheating.
Yeah...actually, I don't understand fully this answer, I think the stakeholders mentioned here is the inspector's attitude, the customer and the authority...the only thing I know for sure is that there's something that limits the system power and therefore make the sportsmen want to cheat. Correct.C. Given that the proper stakeholders can be identified, mathematical theories can be used as predictors of behavior
Well, I think the author does not mention the math.. theories as predictors, these theories are used to explain why the sportsmen cheat, and the main point of this passage should be more than that. IncorrectD. A new mathematical theory illustrates that drug use in professional sports is the result of intense competition among athletes and their desire to win.
It's not about the intense competition. IncorrectE. A mathematical theory used to predict behavior is only as accurate as the information that the theory is used to interpret.
The main point should be more than that, and once again, I think the theory is not used to predict behavior but to explain wrong-doing action in the passage, moreover, the accurate of the information is mentioned only in the solution, not to predict behavior. Incorrect
5. What is the main purpose of the second paragraph?A. To present a puzzling question which the passage then attempts to answer
"Why?". It's a question, and the passage try to answer it. CorrectB. To provide information about the punishments for getting caught taking performance enhancing drugs.
It should be more that just providing information. IncorrectC. To introduce a theory which does not properly predict the behavior being investigated
The 3rd paragraph is the one what introduces a theory, not a 2nd paragraph. IncorrectD. To detail several facts critical to the author’s central argument
Well, I don't think you can present several critical facts in just 2 sentences. By the way, if this fact is crossed out, we can still understand what the author wants to present. Incorrect. E. To introduce a counter argument which is ultimately refuted
This argument is not refuted
I think question 6 is the hardest one. I get confused 6. Which of the following statements is most strongly supported by the passage?A. In some instances, reporting an athlete’s negative drug test results is more important than reporting another athlete’s positive drug test results.
as mathematicans suggested, The report should be both positive and negative, nothing about the importance here. IncorrectB. Only by taking an action that could disqualify a significant number of participants in professional sports can the dilemma presented in the passage be solved.
I don't think this is a right answer, because if someone takes the action that disqualifies a significant number of participants, the sport may vanish in a hailstorm of disqualifications (paragraph 7)C. Increasing the severity of the punishments for drug violations in professional sports may not solve the problem outlined in the passage but could diminish it.
The passage has nothing to do with severity of the punishments. IncorrectD. A majority of professional athletes would not cheat if they knew that they could win without cheating.
According to the passage, they could not cheat if they knew they will be caught, and they cheat because of their desire to win blah blah . But if they knew that they could win without cheating.....???? You can't assure that they will not cheat. Even though they do not cheat, how can you say about majority or minority???
So i think. IncorrectE. Some mathematicians believe that the current system of drug enforcement in professional sports is adequate to control the problem but will not eliminate drug use completely.
This current system is not adequate to control the problem. Incorrect
Life is not easy
I knew that and now I don't even expect life to be easy