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The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is [#permalink]
12 Nov 2005, 09:47
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The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is proportional to its body weight, whereas the animal's energy output available to perform this task is proportional to its surface area. This is the reason that small animals, like squirrel, can run up a tree trunk almost as fast as they can move on level ground, whereas large animals tend to slow down when they are moving uphill
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the explanation above depends?
(A) The amount of energy needed to move uphill is no greater for large animals that it is for small animals.
(B) Small animals can move more rapidly than large animals can.
(C) The ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals.
(D) There is little variation in the ratio of energy output to body weight among animals.
(E) The amount of energy needed to run at a given speed is proportional to the surface area of the running animal.
C)...the argument states that energy input is proportional to body weight and energy output is proportional to surface area. when an animal move up the hill, it would, if the proportion of the body weight to surface area is the same, do that in the same amount of time as a small animal would. so the conlusion of the author can only be true, when this proportion is not the same for all animals.
If your mind can conceive it and your heart can believe it, have faith that you can achieve it.
Evidence 1: Energy required is proportional to body weight
Evidence 2: Energy output is proportional to surface area
Conclusion: Small animals can move quickly and large animals slowly
The missing assumption ties the evidence to the conclusion. Option C provides the assumption. If the ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller for a large animal, then the large animal would move slowly.