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The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is

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Re: Energy to move uphill [#permalink] New post 21 Sep 2011, 00:16
IMO C. I used POE and came to C.

jainu wrote:
The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is proportional to its body weight, whereas the animal’s energy output available to perform this task is proportional to its surface area. This is the reason that small animals, like squirrel, can run up a tree trunk almost as fast as they can move on level ground, whereas large animals tend to slow down when they are moving uphill.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the explanation above depends?

(A) The amount of energy needed to move uphill is no greater for large animals that it is for small animals.
(B) Small animals can move more rapidly than large animals can.
(C) The ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals.
(D) There is little variation in the ratio of energy output to body weight among animals.
(E) The amount of energy needed to run at a given speed is proportional to the surface area of the running animal.

Please provide the reasoning.

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Re: Energy to move uphill [#permalink] New post 27 Sep 2011, 07:54
Thanks @gmatbull - Great explanation.
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Re: Energy to move uphill [#permalink] New post 01 Nov 2011, 22:57
Easy C
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is [#permalink] New post 16 Dec 2011, 01:08
C
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is [#permalink] New post 26 Dec 2011, 10:51
Its C
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is [#permalink] New post 06 Jan 2012, 07:33
Quite tricky. The ratio seemed to throw off track at first but it was the only answer that made sense. C is the answer.
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is [#permalink] New post 06 Jan 2012, 13:18
+1 C
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is [#permalink] New post 07 Jan 2012, 21:07
c
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is [#permalink] New post 03 May 2012, 04:48
(A) The amount of energy needed to move uphill is no greater for large animals that it is for small animals.
WRONG. Because the author agrees energies are different for different sizes.
(B) Small animals can move more rapidly than large animals can.
WRONG. This is the Premise so can't be the assumption.
(C) The ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals.
CORRECT
(D) There is little variation in the ratio of energy output to body weight among animals.
WRONG. There is a lot of variation for larger animals ratio is higher and smaller animals ratio is smaller.
(E) The amount of energy needed to run at a given speed is proportional to the surface area of the running animal.
WRONG. Speeds are irrelevant to the argument. We are discussing only energies needed.
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is [#permalink] New post 14 May 2012, 22:53
The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is proportional to its body weight, whereas the animal’s energy output available to perform this task is proportional to its surface area. This is the reason that small animals, like squirrel, can run up a tree trunk almost as fast as they can move on level ground, whereas large animals tend to slow down when they are moving uphill.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the explanation above depends?

(A) The amount of energy needed to move uphill is no greater for large animals that it is for small animals. - Negating the information already provided in the Premise
(B) Small animals can move more rapidly than large animals can. - Provided in the premise already
(C) The ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals. - This provides the most appropriate assumption - Correct
(D) There is little variation in the ratio of energy output to body weight among animals. - If this is assumed, then both large and small animals should be able to move fast. Does not justify to be an assumption.
(E) The amount of energy needed to run at a given speed is proportional to the surface area of the running animal. - Irrelevant information
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is [#permalink] New post 19 May 2012, 03:13
I guess C is the straight choice...
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is [#permalink] New post 06 Jun 2012, 08:11
small animals ==> large surface area but less weight==> climb faster
Large animals ==> smaller surface area but more weight ==> slower
answer C.
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is [#permalink] New post 06 Jun 2012, 21:03
Energy expended (E) to move uphill is proportional to Body weight. ie W
Hence more W results in greater E

Energy output (OE) available is proportional to surface area ie A
Hence more A results in greater OE

(A) The amount of energy needed to move uphill is no greater for large animals that it is for small animals. - If this is the case, then both large and small animals should be able to move uphill with same efficiency - Incorrect.
(B) Small animals can move more rapidly than large animals can. - Already mentioned in the argument - Incorrect
(C) The ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals. - This provides the proper link why small animals are more efficient at moving compared to large animals - Correct
(D) There is little variation in the ratio of energy output to body weight among animals. - Should have equal efficiency among all animals - Incorrect
(E) The amount of energy needed to run at a given speed is proportional to the surface area of the running animal. - Irrelevant in the present context - Incorrect
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is [#permalink] New post 19 Aug 2012, 11:12
Expert's post
Though my reply is a bit late, still I shall not suffice just by solving and not by sharing.
ENERGY EXPENDED~ WEIGHT OF THE ANIMAL
ENERGY OUTPUT ~ SURFACE AREA OF THE ANIMAL
CLEARLY SURFACE AREA ~ WEIGHT,
let surface area be denoted by A and weight be W.
The more is A/W, the more is the energy output/energy expended.
If an option states that the ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals, then for sure the ratio of energy output/energy expended is much less than that of smaller animals.
Hence c is the clear winner.
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is [#permalink] New post 02 Oct 2012, 23:10
There are two possible assumption to this
one is straight fwd that there is a limitation on the max energy output as energy output is proportional to size. Hence when the slow down it means that they reached there is max. but unfortunately its not mentioned in the options
another is a mathmetical approach

Energy to move uphill proportional to Body wt...................1
Energy output Proprtional to Surface area..........................2

Divide 1 and 2

energy to move uphill Body wt
------------------------- = K* -----------------
energy output Surface area

This clearly justifies the option C As Energy decreses in animals with body wt the other side of eqn should aslo decrease
to maintain the proportionality
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is [#permalink] New post 24 Apr 2014, 21:46
jainu wrote:
The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is proportional to its body weight, whereas the animal’s energy output available to perform this task is proportional to its surface area. This is the reason that small animals, like squirrel, can run up a tree trunk almost as fast as they can move on level ground, whereas large animals tend to slow down when they are moving uphill.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the explanation above depends?

(A) The amount of energy needed to move uphill is no greater for large animals that it is for small animals.
(B) Small animals can move more rapidly than large animals can.
(C) The ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals.
(D) There is little variation in the ratio of energy output to body weight among animals.
(E) The amount of energy needed to run at a given speed is proportional to the surface area of the running animal.

Please provide the reasoning.


Solution: C
Premise: Generic Principle given that required energy for task is determined by body weight and available energy is determined by surface area of animal
Conclusion: Principal is assumed as reason for difference in speed between small and large animal while climbing uphill.
Assumption: for large animal --> required energy > available energy or body weight > surface area. then only above principal can serve as reason i.e must be true.
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is   [#permalink] 24 Apr 2014, 21:46
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