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======== The evolution of intelligence among early large

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======== The evolution of intelligence among early large [#permalink] New post 26 Mar 2009, 08:05
========

The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of the grasslands was due in great measure to the interaction between two ecologically synchronized groups of these animals, the hunting carnivores and the herbivores that they hunted. The interaction resulting from the differences between predator and prey led to a general improvement in brain functions; however, certain components of intelligence were improved far more than others.

The kind of intelligence favored by the interplay of increasingly smarter catchers and increasingly keener escapers is defined by attention—that aspect of mind carrying consciousness forward from one moment to the next. It ranges from a passive, free-floating awareness to a highly focused, active fixation. The range through these states is mediated by the arousal system, a network of tracts converging from sensory systems to integrating centers in the brain stem. From the more relaxed to the more vigorous levels, sensitivity to novelty is increased. The organism is more awake, more vigilant; this increased vigilance results in the apprehension of ever more subtle signals as the organism becomes more sensitive to its surroundings. The processes of arousal and concentration give attention its direction. Arousal is at first general, with a flooding of impulses in the brain stem; then gradually the activation is channeled. Thus begins concentration, the holding of consistent images. One meaning of intelligence is the way in which these images and other alertly searched information are used in the context of previous experience. Consciousness links past attention to the present and permits the integration of details with perceived ends and purposes.

The elements of intelligence and consciousness come together marvelously to produce different styles in predator and prey. Herbivores and carnivores develop different kinds of attention related to escaping or chasing. Although in both kinds of animal, arousal stimulates the production of adrenaline and norepinephrine by the adrenal glands, the effect in herbivores is primarily fear, whereas in carnivores the effect is primarily aggression. For both, arousal attunes the animal to what is ahead. Perhaps it does not experience forethought as we know it, but the animal does experience something like it. The predator is searchingly aggressive, innerdirected, tuned by the nervous system and the adrenal hormones, but aware in a sense closer to human consciousness than, say, a hungry lizard’s instinctive snap at a passing beetle. Using past events as a framework, the large mammal predator is working out a relationship between movement and food, sensitive to possibilities in cold trails and distant sounds—and yesterday’s unforgotten lessons. The herbivore prey is of a different mind. Its mood of wariness rather than searching and its attitude of general expectancy instead of anticipating are silk-thin veils of tranquility over an explosive endocrine system.



17. The author is primarily concerned with

(A) disproving the view that herbivores are less intelligent than carnivores
(B) describing a relationship between animals’ intelligence and their ecological roles
(C) establishing a direct link between early large mammals and their modern counterparts
(D) analyzing the ecological basis for the dominance of some carnivores over other carnivores
(E) demonstrating the importance of hormones in mental activity

18. The author refers to a hungry lizard (line 55) primarily in order to

(A) demonstrate the similarity between the hunting methods of mammals and those of nonmammals
(B) broaden the application of his argument by including an insectivore as an example
(C) make a distinction between higher and lower levels of consciousness
(D) provide an additional illustration of the brutality characteristic of predators
(E) offer an objection to suggestions that all animals lack consciousness

19. It can be inferred from the passage that in animals less intelligent than the mammals discussed in the passage

(A) past experience is less helpful in ensuring survival
(B) attention is more highly focused
(C) muscular coordination is less highly developed
(D) there is less need for competition among species
(E) environment is more important in establishing the proper ratio of prey to predator

20. The sensitivity described in lines 56-61 is most clearly an example of

(A) “free-floating awareness” (lines 16-17)
(B) “flooding of impulses in the brain stem” (lines 29-30)
(C) “the holding of consistent images” (lines 31-32)
(D) “integration of details with perceived ends and purposes” (lines 37-38)
(E) “silk-thin veils of tranquility” (line 64)

21. The author’s attitude toward the mammals discussed in the passage is best described as

(A) superior and condescending
(B) lighthearted and jocular
(C) apologetic and conciliatory
(D) wistful and tender
(E) respectful and admiring

22. The author provides information that would answer which of the following questions?

I. Why is an aroused herbivore usually fearful?
II. What are some of the degrees of attention in large mammals?
III. What occurs when the stimulus that causes arousal of a mammal is removed?

(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II and III

23. According to the passage, improvement in brain function among early large mammals resulted primarily from which of the following?

(A) Interplay of predator and prey
(B) Persistence of free-floating awareness in animals of the grasslands
(C) Gradual dominance of warm-blooded mammals over cold-blooded reptiles
(D) Interaction of early large mammals with less intelligent species
(E) Improvement of the capacity for memory among herbivores and carnivores

24. According to the passage, as the process of arousal in an organism continues, all of the following may occur EXCEPT:

(A) the production of adrenaline
(B) the production of norepinephrine
(C) a heightening of sensitivity to stimuli
(D) an increase in selectivity with respect to stimuli
(E) an expansion of the range of states mediated by the brain stem
============
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Re: RC 1-Carnivores and Herbivores [#permalink] New post 26 Mar 2009, 18:57
BCCBEEAD
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Re: RC 1-Carnivores and Herbivores [#permalink] New post 27 Mar 2009, 01:09
Ufffffffff.! that was a brutal passage for me.
Anyways, my answers are:
BCACAEAD
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Re: RC 1-Carnivores and Herbivores [#permalink] New post 27 Mar 2009, 09:25
:P
what a Passage it was!!
took 20 mins

My choices are acbcace
last one--did not try
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Re: RC 1-Carnivores and Herbivores [#permalink] New post 27 Mar 2009, 09:40
OAs are bcade cae
I want to forget this RC :shock:
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Re: RC 1-Carnivores and Herbivores [#permalink] New post 27 Mar 2009, 19:58
Took close to 20 min

B C A D E A/C A E

Can some one shed more light on . What are some of the degrees of attention in large mammals?

where is this answered? I com,bed through the passage and only found this

Using past events as a framework, the large mammal predator is working out a relationship between movement and food, sensitive to possibilities in cold trails and distant sounds—and yesterday’s unforgotten lessons.

How are these degrees of attention? Any thing any where else?
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Re: RC 1-Carnivores and Herbivores [#permalink] New post 19 May 2009, 13:38
my answers are:

17) B
18) B
19) A
20) D
21) A
22) D
23) A
24) D
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Re: RC 1-Carnivores and Herbivores [#permalink] New post 01 Jul 2009, 13:24
I got 3 wrong in this passage (which helps to assure that I am improving). Can someone please explain the answers to 18 and 20 in detail? I somehow still can't comprehend.
Thanks
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Re: RC 1-Carnivores and Herbivores [#permalink] New post 01 Jul 2009, 13:51
nitya34 wrote:
OAs are bcade cae
I want to forget this RC :shock:



Got em all right 8-)

tough passage though
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Re: RC 1-Carnivores and Herbivores [#permalink] New post 01 Jul 2009, 13:53
icandy wrote:
Took close to 20 min

B C A D E A/C A E

Can some one shed more light on . What are some of the degrees of attention in large mammals?

where is this answered? I com,bed through the passage and only found this

Using past events as a framework, the large mammal predator is working out a relationship between movement and food, sensitive to possibilities in cold trails and distant sounds—and yesterday’s unforgotten lessons.

How are these degrees of attention? Any thing any where else?



Second paragraph, 3rd line

"It ranges from a passive, free-floating awareness to a highly focused, active fixation."
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Re: RC 1-Carnivores and Herbivores [#permalink] New post 01 Jul 2009, 14:05
gmatprep09 wrote:
I got 3 wrong in this passage (which helps to assure that I am improving). Can someone please explain the answers to 18 and 20 in detail? I somehow still can't comprehend.
Thanks


18. The author refers to a hungry lizard (line 55) primarily in order to

(A) demonstrate the similarity between the hunting methods of mammals and those of nonmammals author has contrasted lizards to those mammals, no similarity
(B) broaden the application of his argument by including an insectivore as an example first, there is no argument, second, his description is not applicable to lizards, lizard has been cited to show a contrast
(C) make a distinction between higher and lower levels of consciousnesscorrect, author is talking about extremely high levels of consciousness in these mammals, and contrasting them with those of lizard
(D) provide an additional illustration of the brutality characteristic of predators irrelevant, brutality has nowhere been mentioned
(E) offer an objection to suggestions that all animals lack consciousness there is no such suggestion, and the tone of the author is not of objection, it is more descriptive


20. The sensitivity described in lines 56-61 is most clearly an example of........ tough one, try to link the phrases mentioned with the phrase in question

(A) “free-floating awareness” (lines 16-17) too far from sensitivity
(B) “flooding of impulses in the brain stem” (lines 29-30) too extreme, the predator need not be flooded with impulses at seeing trails of prey
(C) “the holding of consistent images” (lines 31-32) this has been said for concentration, not sensitivity to cold trails
(D) “integration of details with perceived ends and purposes” (lines 37-38) best option so far, trails of prey are very fine details to which a predator can be sensitive by using his past experience
(E) “silk-thin veils of tranquility” (line 64) this was said for prey, not predator. The sensitivity being discussed in those lines was related to predators

Hope this was helpful
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Re: RC 1-Carnivores and Herbivores [#permalink] New post 05 Jul 2009, 10:36
For the last question, most of us (including me) got D.

24. According to the passage, as the process of arousal in an organism continues, all of the following may occur EXCEPT:

(A) the production of adrenaline
(B) the production of norepinephrine
(C) a heightening of sensitivity to stimuli
(D) an increase in selectivity with respect to stimuli
(E) an expansion of the range of states mediated by the brain stem

Where is "increase in selectivity wrt stimuli" mentioned in the passage?
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Re: RC 1-Carnivores and Herbivores [#permalink] New post 20 Aug 2009, 04:42
yes tough one. it took 17 mins for me..

17 b
18 c
19 a
20 d
21 e
22 e //wrong ..c
23 a
24 d // wrong .. e

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Re: RC 1-Carnivores and Herbivores   [#permalink] 20 Aug 2009, 04:42
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======== The evolution of intelligence among early large

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