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The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia

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The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia [#permalink] New post 03 Apr 2009, 10:35
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The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia indicates that by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in country have been attacked by the birds.

a) by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in country have been attacked by the birds.
b) by the time they reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women, who were born in the country, had been attacked by birds.
c) by the time they reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of the women born in the country had been attacked by the birds.
d) 98 percent of the men and 75 percent of the women that were born in the country were attacked by the birds by the time they reach adulthood.
e) 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women who were born in the country, by the time they reached adulthood had been attacked by birds
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Re: GMATprep:magpie [#permalink] New post 03 Apr 2009, 11:04
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pmal04 wrote:
The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia indicates that by the time they had reached adulthood. 98 cercent of men and 75 percent of women born in the cc’unby have been attaxked by the birds.o by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country have been attacked by the birds
o by the time they reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women, who were born in the country, had been attacked by the birds
the time they reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women bomn in the cot.ntry had been attacked by hhe birdso 98 percent of men ard 75 percent of women that were born in the country were attacked by the birds by the time they reach adulthood
98 percent of men and 75 percent of women who were born in the country, by the time they reached adulthood had been attaxked by the birds


please write options (a, b, c, d, e) and verify spelling mistakes as well
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Re: GMATprep:magpie [#permalink] New post 09 Apr 2009, 22:55
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In all the options ‘by the time they reached adulthood’ refers to birds or people is not clear. But in E itsvery clear.

PLease post OA
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Re: GMATprep:magpie [#permalink] New post 10 Apr 2009, 14:10
OA: C
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Re: GMATprep:magpie [#permalink] New post 02 Aug 2010, 03:59
Whats wrong with E?
please clarify
thanks
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Re: GMATprep:magpie [#permalink] New post 25 Aug 2010, 08:43
noboru wrote:
Whats wrong with E?
please clarify
thanks


nobody is going to clarify this?
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Re: GMATprep:magpie [#permalink] New post 26 Feb 2011, 17:37
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noboru wrote:
Whats wrong with E?
please clarify
thanks


I am for C.

Here's why:
a) by the time they (who? birds? attacks? people?) had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in country have been attacked by the birds
b) by the time they (who? birds? attacks? people?) reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women, who were born in the country, had been attacked (incorrect use of perfect tense) by birds.
c) by the time they correctly modifies the noun that immediately follows comma reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of the women born in the country had been attacked by the birds.
d) 98 percent of the men and 75 percent of the women that were born in the country were attacked by the birds by the time they (incorrectly modifies birds) reach adulthood.
e) 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women who were born in the country, by (illogical. try to replace the long noun with a simple word such as "people" and try to read the sentence from beginning till the end, and you will notice "study suggests that people, by the time they reached adulthood...."makes no sense) the time they reached adulthood had been attacked by birds

Handy Trick: Replace a long wordy noun with a simpler one and re-read the whole sentence to avoid such mistakes.
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Re: GMATprep:magpie [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2011, 03:18
E is very similar to C. Could anybody elaborate?
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Re: The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia [#permalink] New post 07 May 2012, 15:40
Yes could someone explain here pls

"what does they refer to in C"

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Re: The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia [#permalink] New post 07 May 2012, 17:16
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pmal04 wrote:
The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia indicates that by the time they had reached adulthood. 98 cercent of men and 75 percent of women born in the cc’unby have been attaxked by the birds.o by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country have been attacked by the birds
o by the time they reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women, who were born in the country, had been attacked by the birds
the time they reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women bomn in the cot.ntry had been attacked by hhe birds
o 98 percent of men ard 75 percent of women that were born in the country were attacked by the birds by the time they reach adulthood
98 percent of men and 75 percent of women who were born in the country, by the time they reached adulthood had been attaxked by the birds



In E, a comma is required before who to refer to both men and women.

"by the time" hence we require perfect tense "had been attacked" to show that the attack preceded a particular instance of time.


Timeline:

---------had been attacked---------------------by the time they reached adulthood (both are past tense)---------------------------Present tense
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Re: The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia [#permalink] New post 08 May 2012, 05:48
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Hi All,

The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia indicates that by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country have been attacked by the birds.


Image

It is very important to understand the intended meaning of the sentence to ascertain the timeline of the events. The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia suggests that by the time 98% of men and 75% of women reached adulthood, they had already been attacked by the bird.

Image

Notice that the sentence says that men and women had already been attacked by the bird even before they reached adulthood. This means that they got attacked first and then they reached adulthood. Now this can be reported in two ways:
a. “by the time they reach adulthood, 98% of men and 75% of women have been attacked by the birds.” (Reported in Present context)
b. “by the time they reached adulthood, 98% of men and 75% of women had been attacked by the birds.” (Reported in Past context)

Error Analysis:
1. This sentence uses past perfect tense for the event that took place later and present perfect tense for the event that took place earlier. In order to establish the correct sequencing, we must use past perfect for the event that took place earlier, that is men and women being attacked, and simple past tense for the event that took place later, that is they reaching adulthood.

POE:

Choice A: by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country have been attacked by the birds. Incorrect for the verb tense error discussed above.

Choice B: by the time they reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women, who were born in the country, had been attacked by the birds. Incorrect. This choice repeats the verb tense error by using simple present tense for the event that took place later when past perfect has been correctly used for the earlier event.

Choice C: by the time they reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country had been attacked by the birds. Correct. The verb tense error has been corrected here.

Choice D: 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women that were born in the country were attacked by the birds by the time they reach adulthood. Incorrect.
a. “that” cannot be used to refer to “men and women”.
b. “reach” is not written in the correct verb tense.

Choice E: 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women who were born in the country, by the time they reached adulthood had been attacked by the birds. Incorrect. We Have modifier ambiguity in this choice. Notice that “by the time they reached adulthood” is placed little awkwardly that makes it ambiguous that which entity it’s modifying. It seems as if it is modifying “who were born in the country”. This modifier should have a comma after adulthood to do away with this ambiguity.

PS – Pronoun “they” in Choices A, B, C and E refers to “men and women” because only these men and women reached adulthood. There is no other antecedent “they” can logically refer to.

Image

1. Use past perfect for the event that took place earlier and simple past for the event that took place later.
2. Use the correct combination of verb tenses depending upon the context of the sentence.
3. There should not be any ambiguity in modifier reference.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia [#permalink] New post 16 Oct 2013, 17:26
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Re: The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia [#permalink] New post 07 May 2014, 16:49
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Dude original question is just WRONG

Answer choice (C) should have reachED instead of reach.

Please correct and be careful in the future

Thanks!
Cheers
J :)
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Re: The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia [#permalink] New post 29 Sep 2014, 10:49
The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia indicates that by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in country have been attacked by the birds.

"By The time" phrase calls for the use of had in the connecting sentence.
eg
By the time X happened, Y had happened.: Notice past tense in 1st part of sentence and past perfect in 2nd part of sentence.


a) by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in country have been attacked by the birds. - Wrong use of had

b) by the time they reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women, who were born in the country, had been attacked by birds. - Who refers to women only, not to men and women.

c) by the time they reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of the women born in the country had been attacked by the birds. Correct Usage

d) 98 percent of the men and 75 percent of the women that were born in the country were attacked by the birds by the time they reach adulthood. - Wrong verb tense and that refers to women only.

e) 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women who were born in the country, by the time they reached adulthood had been attacked by birds - Who refers to Women only.
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Re: The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia [#permalink] New post 29 Sep 2014, 10:53
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia indicates that by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country have been attacked by the birds.


Image

It is very important to understand the intended meaning of the sentence to ascertain the timeline of the events. The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia suggests that by the time 98% of men and 75% of women reached adulthood, they had already been attacked by the bird.

Image

Notice that the sentence says that men and women had already been attacked by the bird even before they reached adulthood. This means that they got attacked first and then they reached adulthood. Now this can be reported in two ways:
a. “by the time they reach adulthood, 98% of men and 75% of women have been attacked by the birds.” (Reported in Present context)
b. “by the time they reached adulthood, 98% of men and 75% of women had been attacked by the birds.” (Reported in Past context)

Error Analysis:
1. This sentence uses past perfect tense for the event that took place later and present perfect tense for the event that took place earlier. In order to establish the correct sequencing, we must use past perfect for the event that took place earlier, that is men and women being attacked, and simple past tense for the event that took place later, that is they reaching adulthood.

POE:

Choice A: by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country have been attacked by the birds. Incorrect for the verb tense error discussed above.

Choice B: by the time they reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women, who were born in the country, had been attacked by the birds. Incorrect. This choice repeats the verb tense error by using simple present tense for the event that took place later when past perfect has been correctly used for the earlier event.

Choice C: by the time they reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country had been attacked by the birds. Correct. The verb tense error has been corrected here.

Choice D: 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women that were born in the country were attacked by the birds by the time they reach adulthood. Incorrect.
a. “that” cannot be used to refer to “men and women”.
b. “reach” is not written in the correct verb tense.

Choice E: 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women who were born in the country, by the time they reached adulthood had been attacked by the birds. Incorrect. We Have modifier ambiguity in this choice. Notice that “by the time they reached adulthood” is placed little awkwardly that makes it ambiguous that which entity it’s modifying. It seems as if it is modifying “who were born in the country”. This modifier should have a comma after adulthood to do away with this ambiguity.

PS – Pronoun “they” in Choices A, B, C and E refers to “men and women” because only these men and women reached adulthood. There is no other antecedent “they” can logically refer to.

Image

1. Use past perfect for the event that took place earlier and simple past for the event that took place later.
2. Use the correct combination of verb tenses depending upon the context of the sentence.
3. There should not be any ambiguity in modifier reference.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha


Thanks Shraddha for the excellent explanation:
One little Confusion for option E. Does Who refers to Women only ( preceding noun) or to both men and women

98 percent of men and 75 percent of women who were born in the country, by the time they reached adulthood had been attacked by birds
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Re: The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia   [#permalink] 29 Sep 2014, 10:53
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