Find all School-related info fast with the new School-Specific MBA Forum

It is currently 01 Sep 2014, 10:50

Happy Labor Day:

Free Access to New GMATClub Tests for all GMATClub Members!!


Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 31 May 2010
Posts: 97
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 21 [0], given: 23

Reviews Badge
The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the [#permalink] New post 11 Jan 2012, 17:04
The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were—reptiles or birds—are among the questions scientists have puzzled over.
Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles. Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds. In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing-like membrane. The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws. In birds the second finger is the principal strut of the wing, which consists primarily of feathers. If the pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.
The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions. This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a savings in weight. In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.
Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. T. H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm-blooded because flying implies a high rate of metabolism, which in turn implies a high internal temperature. Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight. The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidence that his reasoning was correct.
Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became airborne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves. Each hypothesis has its difficulties. The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaurs’ hind feet resembled a bat’s and could serve as hooks by which the animal could hang in preparation for flight. The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings. The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the
(A) enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enabled them to fly great distances
(B) structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats
(C) fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they solved the problem of powered flight
(D) pterosaurs were reptiles
(E) pterosaurs walked on all fours
2. The author views the idea that the pterosaurs became airborne by rising into light winds created by waves as
(A) revolutionary
(B) unlikely
(C) unassailable
(D) probable
(E) outdated
3. According to the passage, the skeleton of a pterosaur can be distinguished from that of a bird by the
(A) size of its wingspan
(B) presence of hollow spaces in its bones
(C) anatomic origin of its wing strut
(D) presence of hooklike projections on its hind feet
(E) location of the shoulder joint joining the wing to its body
4. The ideas attributed to T. H. Huxley in the passage suggest that he would most likely agree with which of the following statements?
(A) An animal’s brain size has little bearing on its ability to master complex behaviors.
(B) An animal’s appearance is often influenced by environmental requirements and physical capabilities.
(C) Animals within a given family group are unlikely to change their appearance dramatically over a period of time.
(D) The origin of flight in vertebrates was an accidental development rather than the outcome of specialization or adaptation.
(E) The pterosaurs should be classified as birds, not reptiles.
5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?
(A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.
(B) They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight.
(C) They flew in order to capture prey.
(D) They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds.
(E) They lived primarily in a forest-like habitat.
6. Which of the following best describes the organization of the last paragraph of the passage?
(A) New evidence is introduced to support a traditional point of view.
(B) Three explanations for a phenomenon are presented, and each is disputed by means of specific information.
(C) Three hypotheses are outlined, and evidence supporting each is given.
(D) Recent discoveries are described, and their implications for future study are projected.
(E) A summary of the material in the preceding paragraphs is presented, and conclusions are drawn.
7. It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs
(A) lived near large bodies of water
(B) had sharp teeth for tearing food
(C) were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles
(D) had longer tails than many birds
(E) consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature


Plz post the time take to complete passage
_________________

Kudos if any of my post helps you !!!

Kaplan Promo CodeKnewton GMAT Discount CodesManhattan GMAT Discount Codes
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Joined: 23 Oct 2010
Posts: 384
Location: Azerbaijan
Concentration: Finance
Schools: HEC '15 (A)
GMAT 1: 690 Q47 V38
Followers: 12

Kudos [?]: 131 [0], given: 73

GMAT ToolKit User
Re: RC 4 [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2012, 11:24
it took me 12 mins. honestly, the text is overloaded with too many details. it irritates a bit :)

my answer choice are below -
1D
2B
3A
4B
5A
6B
7A

i am ready to discuss each answer choice to clarify everything. :)
_________________

Happy are those who dream dreams and are ready to pay the price to make them come true

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 25 Sep 2010
Posts: 85
Schools: HBS, LBS, Wharton, Kelloggs, Booth
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 2 [0], given: 15

Re: RC 4 [#permalink] New post 23 Jan 2012, 00:56
CBCBACD
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 23 Jan 2012
Posts: 4
Location: United States
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 2

Re: RC 4 [#permalink] New post 23 Jan 2012, 03:47
I think A;D;C;B;A;B;A. Can anyone tell me right answers for the above. Need explanation as well.
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 31 May 2010
Posts: 97
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 21 [0], given: 23

Reviews Badge
Re: RC 4 [#permalink] New post 23 Jan 2012, 15:34
Hi
OA:
D
B
C
B
A
B
A
_________________

Kudos if any of my post helps you !!!

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 08 Jul 2008
Posts: 148
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 1

Re: RC 4 [#permalink] New post 25 Jan 2012, 23:37
3/6 correct. Oh well. Thanks!
Re: RC 4   [#permalink] 25 Jan 2012, 23:37
    Similar topics Author Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
3 The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the atomy 13 17 May 2009, 08:42
The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the goalsnr 5 10 Jul 2008, 19:32
The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the razrulz 9 01 Feb 2006, 04:19
The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the automan 0 31 Oct 2005, 14:24
The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the qhoc0010 0 31 Dec 2004, 15:16
Display posts from previous: Sort by

The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


cron

GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Privacy Policy| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.