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The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the

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The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the [#permalink] New post 17 May 2009, 08:42
The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were—reptiles or birds—are among the questions scientists have puzzled over.
Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles.
Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds. In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing-like membrane. The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws. In birds the second finger is the principal strut of the wing, which consists primarily of feathers. If the pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.
The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions. This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a savings in weight. In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.
Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. T. H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm-blooded because flying implies a high rate of metabolism, which in turn implies a high internal temperature. Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight. The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidence that his reasoning was correct.
Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became airborne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves. Each hypothesis has its difficulties. The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaurs’ hind feet resembled a bat’s and could serve as hooks by which the animal could hang in preparation for flight. The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings. The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.


It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the
(A) enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enabled them to fly great distances
(B) structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats
(C) fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they solved the problem of powered flight
(D) pterosaurs were reptiles
(E) pterosaurs walked on all fours

I got the answer to this question but please tell me on the basis of which statement or statements in the passage you decided the right answer. please mention those statements as well..
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Re: 1000 rc [#permalink] New post 17 May 2009, 12:32
atomy wrote:
The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were—reptiles or birds—are among the questions scientists have puzzled over.
Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles.
Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds. In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing-like membrane. The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws. In birds the second finger is the principal strut of the wing, which consists primarily of feathers. If the pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.
The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions. This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a savings in weight. In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.
Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. T. H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm-blooded because flying implies a high rate of metabolism, which in turn implies a high internal temperature. Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight. The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidence that his reasoning was correct.
Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became airborne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves. Each hypothesis has its difficulties. The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaurs’ hind feet resembled a bat’s and could serve as hooks by which the animal could hang in preparation for flight. The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings. The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.

It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the
(A) enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enabled them to fly great distances
(B) structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats
(C) fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they solved the problem of powered flight
(D) pterosaurs were reptiles
(E) pterosaurs walked on all fours

I got the answer to this question but please tell me on the basis of which statement or statements in the passage you decided the right answer. please mention those statements as well..


I think I would guess (D).
(A) we can't be sure of this, the passage makes no mention of flight distance, in fact, scientists still can't figure out how such a heavy creature was able to fly at all.
(B) the last paragraph suggests that the assumption of resemblance to bats was wrong.
(C) This contradicts the passage's first paragraph.
(E) The "walked on all fours" was only a speculative scenario that was mentioned, we don't necessarily know for sure that most scientists generally agree on this point.

(D) This is the "least controversial" claim, therefore implying that some kind of general consensus exists, even if its not strong - "Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles."
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Re: 1000 rc [#permalink] New post 09 Jul 2009, 23:20
and how to explain these two :)


5.It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?
(A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.
(B) They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight.
(C) They flew in order to capture prey.
(D) They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds.
(E) They lived primarily in a forest-like habitat.
OA---
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


7.It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs
(A) lived near large bodies of water
(B) had sharp teeth for tearing food
(C) were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles
(D) had longer tails than many birds
(E) consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature

OA
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

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Re: 1000 rc [#permalink] New post 03 Aug 2009, 00:09
nitya34 wrote:
and how to explain these two :)


5.It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?
(A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.
(B) They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight.
(C) They flew in order to capture prey.
(D) They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds.
(E) They lived primarily in a forest-like habitat.
OA---
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


7.It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs
(A) lived near large bodies of water
(B) had sharp teeth for tearing food
(C) were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles
(D) had longer tails than many birds
(E) consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature

OA
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


I don't agree with the OA in the 7ths question. I put D as an answer reasoning it by the following sentence in the passage:
"Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian" I'm not sure it fully justifies my answer, but i couldn't find a single word or phrase hinting that pterosaurs lived near large bodies of water.

Does anyone else have any other suggestions?
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Re: 1000 rc [#permalink] New post 03 Aug 2009, 19:23
Yes, I think the answer to Question 7 is D. I concluded mainly based on POE as all other options are definitely not mentioned.
Also, the point about wingspans might support D.

(A) lived near large bodies of water
--no mention of water in the paragraph
(B) had sharp teeth for tearing food
--mentioned only about sharp claws, not teeth
(C) were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles
--not mentioned
(D) had longer tails than many birds
(E) consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature
--mentions only about high metabolism, not about food consumption
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Re: 1000 rc [#permalink] New post 03 Aug 2009, 20:25
Explanation for the 5th

It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?
(A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use. - correct
(B) They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight.
(C) They flew in order to capture prey.
(D) They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds.
(E) They lived primarily in a forest-like habitat.

you can find the answer in the last sentence of the second paragraph:
When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.
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Re: 1000 rc [#permalink] New post 30 Oct 2009, 03:53
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tomirisk wrote:
nitya34 wrote:
and how to explain these two :)


5.It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?
(A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.
(B) They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight.
(C) They flew in order to capture prey.
(D) They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds.
(E) They lived primarily in a forest-like habitat.
OA---
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


7.It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs
(A) lived near large bodies of water
(B) had sharp teeth for tearing food
(C) were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles
(D) had longer tails than many birds
(E) consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature

OA
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


I don't agree with the OA in the 7ths question. I put D as an answer reasoning it by the following sentence in the passage:
"Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian" I'm not sure it fully justifies my answer, but i couldn't find a single word or phrase hinting that pterosaurs lived near large bodies of water.

Does anyone else have any other suggestions?



Hi nIthya,

well the answer to the 7th question is indeed A. look at the line in the last paragraph.The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.

the only option where such huge waves can be produced is near ocean/water bodies. Hope it helped.

well coming to the 5th question.look at the below phrase.
If the pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.

the 3 fingers when not flying were used for grasping the ground and the fourth with the wing was in a V shape.[unfolded].

so optin A is right!!!

+ kudos if u like my reasoning!!!
Cheers!!! :-D :lol: 8-)
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Re: 1000 rc [#permalink] New post 01 Nov 2009, 20:50
atomy wrote:
The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were—reptiles or birds—are among the questions scientists have puzzled over.
Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles.
Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds. In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing-like membrane. The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws. In birds the second finger is the principal strut of the wing, which consists primarily of feathers. If the pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.
The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions. This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a savings in weight. In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.
Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. T. H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm-blooded because flying implies a high rate of metabolism, which in turn implies a high internal temperature. Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight. The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidence that his reasoning was correct.
Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became airborne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves. Each hypothesis has its difficulties. The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaurs’ hind feet resembled a bat’s and could serve as hooks by which the animal could hang in preparation for flight. The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings. The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.


It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the
(A) enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enabled them to fly great distances
(B) structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats
(C) fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they solved the problem of powered flight
(D) pterosaurs were reptiles
(E) pterosaurs walked on all fours

I got the answer to this question but please tell me on the basis of which statement or statements in the passage you decided the right answer. please mention those statements as well..


Please see the red part above.
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Re: 1000 rc [#permalink] New post 20 Jan 2011, 06:34
Yop, the only possible answer for 7 - mentioned in text - is A

kylexy wrote:
tomirisk wrote:
nitya34 wrote:
and how to explain these two :)


5.It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?
(A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.
(B) They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight.
(C) They flew in order to capture prey.
(D) They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds.
(E) They lived primarily in a forest-like habitat.
OA---
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


7.It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs
(A) lived near large bodies of water
(B) had sharp teeth for tearing food
(C) were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles
(D) had longer tails than many birds
(E) consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature

OA
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


I don't agree with the OA in the 7ths question. I put D as an answer reasoning it by the following sentence in the passage:
"Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian" I'm not sure it fully justifies my answer, but i couldn't find a single word or phrase hinting that pterosaurs lived near large bodies of water.

Does anyone else have any other suggestions?



Hi nIthya,

well the answer to the 7th question is indeed A. look at the line in the last paragraph.The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.

the only option where such huge waves can be produced is near ocean/water bodies. Hope it helped.

well coming to the 5th question.look at the below phrase.
If the pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.

the 3 fingers when not flying were used for grasping the ground and the fourth with the wing was in a V shape.[unfolded].

so optin A is right!!!

+ kudos if u like my reasoning!!!
Cheers!!! :-D :lol: 8-)

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Re: 1000 rc [#permalink] New post 30 Aug 2011, 20:02
Nice discussion guys.

I got most of my answers. :)
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Re: 1000 rc [#permalink] New post 06 Dec 2011, 19:40
kylexy wrote:

Hi nIthya,

well the answer to the 7th question is indeed A. look at the line in the last paragraph.The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.


+ kudos if u like my reasoning!!!
Cheers!!! :-D :lol: 8-)


Question 7th is crazy infer. OMG. Nice explanation.
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the [#permalink] New post 22 Dec 2011, 04:58
Hi there guys,
I only seem to find question 5 and 7 on the forum.

where are the rest of the questions/

Thx
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the [#permalink] New post 27 Dec 2011, 22:56
saintlychik,
seems the balance Qns were eaten by the Reptile...lol...Watch out Qn no 5 n 7...ur turn ..
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Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the [#permalink] New post 24 Mar 2012, 03:15
i find both OA confusing.................. can some one post clear passage map here
Re: The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the   [#permalink] 24 Mar 2012, 03:15
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