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Dj, the same concept for the chinese example does apply to the current question. In both examples, the appositive phrase (as a noun phrase) gives an extra piece of information to the one independent clause.
"each question a test of a certain math concept" is NOT an independent clause since it does not make sense on its own. "each" has no referent and makes sense only as a noun phrase (a sentence which has no verb and is meant to give extra information to the independent clause) by refering to some previous noun; in this case "questions"
(E) is for sure wrong, it changes the meaning. Sentence is trying to say that each question test [you] on a prticular concept of maths. While (E) implies that each question is tested ON a particular concept of math, (Which to me sounds as if it is the question and not the test taker who is tested.)
Nope. It can't be A. If you take "question" for a noun --> there's no verb in the phrase. The answer should have enough Subject & Verb so I take E as my answer.
each question a test of a certain math concept
The above does not have a verb indeed. It is what is called a noun phrase and which in and of itself does not have a verb.
Ex: Peter, a teacher from Texas, is an excellent tax payer.
What is in red plays the same role as what "each question a test of a certain math concept" does. You may want to read a bit about noun phrases and their function:
http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/phrases.htm#noun read the example in the appositive phrase section also as there is an example of the above