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# The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local

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25 Oct 2009, 20:21

D is not parallel as a past participle "determined" will need a present participle "differing" to be parallel.
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10 Nov 2009, 16:42
E for me

(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

Local times ... differing is more logical
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31 Mar 2010, 18:34
Looks like the OA to this is E.

Can someone explain? This is too damn difficult!!
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20 Apr 2010, 17:28
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This is a toughie - it looks like you've realized that the key to the problem is parallelism, but you've been tricked by the rather weird form of

parallelism exhibited here.

The only difference between choices D and E is differed/differing, and, as you've no doubt realized, the key issue is making the choice that's most parallel

to 'determined' (from the first half of the modifier).

Here's the key: 'Determined' isn't a verb here. It's a PARTICIPLE: a verb form that functions as an adjective.
The local times were WEIRD (adjective).
The local times were DETERMINED (participle acting as adjective) by ...

So you need to pick the second half that's also 'participle acting as adjective'. Try them both:
D) The local times were DIFFERED: uh oh, that doesn't work.
E) The local times were DIFFERING from city to city. That works. It's a 'present participle' rather than a 'past participle', but it's the only one of the

two that's a participle at all.
In D and E, you can tell determined = participle, not verb, because (a) it immediately follows a comma and (b) there's no subject you could match up with

determined in a normal subject-verb configuration. Even if you match determined with the noun "times" (to which the clause is referring) "times, determined

by" is not proper subject-verb config.

The discussion with detailed explanation can be found in the link:
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/100 ... t1787.html
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02 May 2010, 01:04
manoharpln wrote:
This is a toughie - it looks like you've realized that the key to the problem is parallelism, but you've been tricked by the rather weird form of

parallelism exhibited here.

The only difference between choices D and E is differed/differing, and, as you've no doubt realized, the key issue is making the choice that's most parallel

to 'determined' (from the first half of the modifier).

Here's the key: 'Determined' isn't a verb here. It's a PARTICIPLE: a verb form that functions as an adjective.
The local times were WEIRD (adjective).
The local times were DETERMINED (participle acting as adjective) by ...

So you need to pick the second half that's also 'participle acting as adjective'. Try them both:
D) The local times were DIFFERED: uh oh, that doesn't work.
E) The local times were DIFFERING from city to city. That works. It's a 'present participle' rather than a 'past participle', but it's the only one of the

two that's a participle at all.
In D and E, you can tell determined = participle, not verb, because (a) it immediately follows a comma and (b) there's no subject you could match up with

determined in a normal subject-verb configuration. Even if you match determined with the noun "times" (to which the clause is referring) "times, determined

by" is not proper subject-verb config.

The discussion with detailed explanation can be found in the link:
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/100 ... t1787.html

Great explanation. Thank you!
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02 May 2010, 18:18
I narrowed it to (C) and (E)........but picked (C) because I thought "which" is correctly modifying "local times".

we need "differing" because the sentence mean to say that the local times are differing from city to city in present also....."differed" in past tense would have been incorrect.

However, can someone please explain why (C) is incorrect and (E) correct?

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
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05 Jun 2010, 06:32
Hi seekmba

Even I did the same because which seems to refer to the local times.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [highlight]was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.[/highlight]

The highlighted portion seems to modify only the [highlight]local times[/highlight] and nothing else.

The sentence would have been just -

[highlight]The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times.[/highlight]

But the blah blah after the sentence creates the problems.

2 observations
1. which not required
2. from x to y is correct idiom

But I think this question will not appear on the gmat since it splits the idiom "from x to y" with and. Idioms are atomic.
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Re: SC The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2010, 17:13
I still don't agree with OA, E. What's the reason to use past continuous tense here.

C looks better.
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Re: SC The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2010, 09:01

msrinath thank you a lot for explanation!
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Re: SC The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2010, 05:26
But in E, determined can modify not "local times" but the whole previous clause, therefore creating ambiguity. In C, "which" clearly refers to "local times" and the meaning is more clear.

Thoughts on that?

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Re: SC The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2010, 10:44

1. The rail roads, 2. the subtle llism and 3 Brutal SC
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Re: SC The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2011, 05:19
even though the correct answer is E, in terms of parallel view.. it's little bit tricky...
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2012, 10:41
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or would you say :
Admission to a top B-School depends on one's GMAT score, determined by one's ability and ranged from 200 to 800.

E is good.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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21 May 2013, 14:41
can someone explain why using the relative pronoun which is incorrect here?
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2013, 11:28
Hi Guys,

I am re-opening this question for the discussion. Please try to explain each option.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

OA E
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2013, 12:00
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This question is about parallelism and modifier.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong.
- Parallelism problem. "which was ...." is a clause --> not parallel to "differing" which is Verb-ing modifier.
- "was" is wrong because "local times" is plural.

(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
Wrong. Simple past tense "differed" is not correct. Because "local times" always differ from city to city.

(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong. Same as A. Clause and Verb-ing modifier are not parallel.

(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
Wrong. Verb-ed "differed" is not correct because local times themselves differ from city to city. --> should use Verb-ing modifier.

(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Correct. "determined by" and "differing" are modifiers and are parallel. Hence, E is correct.

Hope it helps.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2013, 15:43
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pqhai wrote:
This question is about parallelism and modifier.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong.
- Parallelism problem. "which was ...." is a clause --> not parallel to "differing" which is Verb-ing modifier.
- "was" is wrong because "local times" is plural.

(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
Wrong. Simple past tense "differed" is not correct. Because "local times" always differ from city to city.

(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong. Same as A. Clause and Verb-ing modifier are not parallel.

(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
Wrong. Verb-ed "differed" is not correct because local times themselves differ from city to city. --> should use Verb-ing modifier.

(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Correct. "determined by" and "differing" are modifiers and are parallel. Hence, E is correct.

Hope it helps.

hey pqhai,

I get it why E is an answer, I got E too. my question is whether usage of which in C is correct or not(just forget about parallelism) .. what I think is "local times" is followed by an "of" hence it is a prepositional phrase, hence the noun is "the abolition" ..

so which is pointing to "the abolition" and use of "was" in A and B IMO is correct. what you say ??
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06 Jun 2014, 09:49
sasen wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
LOCAL TIMES should be "were"...out
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
LOCAL TIMES should be "were"
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
THOGH "WERE" USAGE IS CORRECT,"WHICH WERE DETERMINED" should be parralel to
"WHICH WERE DIFFERING or WHICH DIFFERED"
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
HERE THE ELEMENTS ARE PARALLEL BUT IF YOU NOTICE CLOSELY DIFFERED USAGE IS
INCORRECT because THE SENTECNE IS TALKING ABOUT 2 PIECES ABOUT LOCAL TIME
A) DETERMINED BY ....
B) DIFFERING FROM CITY TO CITY
DIFFERED here is incorrect usage
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
CORRECT

Hey
I have a query : can we take "which were" as repetative in option C ... as in E the modifiers are parallel
in the first go I thought C is the answer as both are parallel and correct .... Please correct me where I am missing ...
Thanks
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2015, 16:59
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@e-gmat
topmbaseeker wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

The sentence goes like this:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times and to the establishment of regional times.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, Modifier 1 and Modifier 2, and to the establishment of regional times.

Modifier 1 = determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian
Modifier 2 = differing from city to city

Sentence with modifier 1 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian, and to the establishment of regional times.

Sentence with modifier 2 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Complete sentence:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

According to e-gmat, present participle after comma modifies the preceding clause by associating itself with the subject and the verb of the preceding clause.
So, in Sentence with modifier 2 only:
'The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times' differing modifies the preceding clause NOT the close noun 'local times' and associated with subject 'The growth of the railroads'. This is nonsensical to me, because the growth of the railroads can not led the abolition by differing from city to city.
Therefore, here, with comma, present participle cannot be || to past participle. To be || either both verb should be past participle or comma should be removed.

Correct me if I am wrong in my reasoning.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2015, 21:55
Hi Guys,

This is a tough nut to crack.Let me try my best in explaining this.

The issue here is that of parallelism.If we use relative clause "which" to modify local times ,then we need a relative clause in the second part of the modifier as well but no option seems to be doing that.Option C successfully uses relative clause in the first part of the modifier but fails to do so in the second part,replacing the relative clause with the "participle modifier".So there is no parallelism using the relative clause here.

Now,the parallelism can also be maintained by the use of participle modifiers "-ed" and "-ing" forms.

Option E successfully brings about the intended meaning by using participle modifiers "detereminED" and "differING",thereby maintaining the paralleism.

Cheers!!!
Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local   [#permalink] 16 Aug 2015, 21:55

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