The increased popularity and availability of televisions has : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# The increased popularity and availability of televisions has

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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2012, 10:36
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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.
A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

Please explain the usage of Participle in +ing and --ed form. I am totally confused with this structure when i use parallelism to determine the correct answer.
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23 Sep 2012, 20:39
nipun1987 wrote:
Please explain the usage of Participle in +ing and --ed form. I am totally confused with this structure when i use parallelism to determine the correct answer.

My answer is D because it maintains parallelism. Here, participles are used on both sides of 'and' (originating and perpetuated). Ethnic and cultural heritages are in a state of flux (so continuous - originating is used) and geographic isolation is fixed (so past - perpetuated is used).

Hope it helps!
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2012, 11:12
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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects...

The use of HAS LED indicates that the change in dialects is an on-going process. Eliminiate A,B and C

Between D and E

perpetuating by..is incorrect , so choose (D)
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2013, 20:55
Its a tricky question, but still I did not get few things.
1. The increased popularity has done how many things? if two things decline of RD and decline of LV, then why there is no ,and between RD and LV.
2. where is the parallelism marker in the sentence?
3. Why not two independent clauses have been joined with ,FANBOYS?

need detailed explanation of this question, specially sentence structure with meaning.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2013, 23:04
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vivmechster wrote:
Its a tricky question, but still I did not get few things.
1. The increased popularity has done how many things? if two things decline of RD and decline of LV, then why there is no ,and between RD and LV.
2. where is the parallelism marker in the sentence?
3. Why not two independent clauses have been joined with ,FANBOYS?

need detailed explanation of this question, specially sentence structure with meaning.

Hi

Here goes my bit-

Increased popularity has led to only one thing - "decline of regional dialects"

"language variation... isolation" describes "regional dialects".

Structure-

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects,(language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation. ) - modifier

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

WHICH needs a comma before it.
Originate (present verb) is not parallel to perpetuated (participle)

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
Originated (past verb) is not parallel to perpetuated (participle)

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
"Originated" refers to a point in past and thus can't be an action. It's incorrectly used as participle here.

More on this-

The Middle Assyrian Empire, which originated in the 14th century BC, facilitated the use of Akkadian as a 'lingua franca...
Originated used as verb.

Originating in the 14th century BC, The Middle Assyrian Empire facililitated.....
Originating used as participle

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

originating (present participle) is parallel to perpetuated (past participle)- Parallel

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

perpetuating By is imprecise. Needs passive voice.

Hope this helps!
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2013, 23:35
CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:
vivmechster wrote:
Its a tricky question, but still I did not get few things.
1. The increased popularity has done how many things? if two things decline of RD and decline of LV, then why there is no ,and between RD and LV.
2. where is the parallelism marker in the sentence?
3. Why not two independent clauses have been joined with ,FANBOYS?

need detailed explanation of this question, specially sentence structure with meaning.

Hi

Here goes my bit-

Increased popularity has led to only one thing - "decline of regional dialects"

"language variation... isolation" describes "regional dialects".

Structure-

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects,(language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation. ) - modifier

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

WHICH needs a comma before it.
Originate (present verb) is not parallel to perpetuated (participle)

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
Originated (past verb) is not parallel to perpetuated (participle)

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
"Originated" refers to a point in past and thus can't be an action. It's incorrectly used as participle here.

More on this-

The Middle Assyrian Empire, which originated in the 14th century BC, facilitated the use of Akkadian as a 'lingua franca...
Originated used as verb.

Originating in the 14th century BC, The Middle Assyrian Empire facililitated.....
Originating used as participle

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

originating (present participle) is parallel to perpetuated (past participle)- Parallel

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

perpetuating By is imprecise. Needs passive voice.

Hope this helps!
Dolly Sharma
Verbal Trainer
CrackVerbal

Hi Dolly,

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects,(language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation. ) - modifier

C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

"perpetuated" is a modifier and not a verb as language variations is the doer of the action.

"originated" is a modifier as diverse ethnic is doing the action.

In the same way, the two modifiers need to be parallel, so why can't "originated" act as a modifier here??
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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26 Dec 2013, 01:49
Quote:

Hi Dolly,

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects,(language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation. ) - modifier

C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

"perpetuated" is a modifier and not a verb as language variations is the doer of the action.

"originated" is a modifier as diverse ethnic is doing the action.

In the same way, the two modifiers need to be parallel, so why can't "originated" act as a modifier here??

Hi

As you mentioned:
"originated" is a modifier as diverse ethnic is doing the action.

We can not use "originated" for "doing the action"..... It indicates a specific point in past and can not be used for an ongoing process/ present action.

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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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15 Mar 2014, 12:17
First I will ask what is the source of this problem:
Second explanations provided above are not up to the mark.

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

Following is my analysis.
In absolute Phrase modifiers we prefer restrictive clause over non restrictive clause; I mean prefer that over which.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated -- originate is in present tense which conveys a fact, but perpetuated is in past tense. Thus, we can reject this choice, considering parallelism issue.

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated -- ed modifier no grammatical error.

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated -- ed modifier no grammatical error.

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated -- ing modifier and ed modifier no grammatical error both acting as adjective to language variations.

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating -- ing modifier no grammatical issue.

For more detail refer Chapter 11 - page 220 of MGMAT SC -- under topic "What else is considered Parallel" : Adjective, Past Participle and Present Participle (used as adjective). Above all elements whether -ed or -ing are modifying the noun language variations and are acting like adjective. Thus, elements are logically parallel to each other.

Further any expert can us help to identify subtle differences in above options.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2014, 08:30
The incorrect options do not contain important words:

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.
A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and "are" perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and "were" perpetuated
C. originated ("incorrect use of word") from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating ("incorrect use of word"; perpetuating what?)

In C, the verb "originate" is used as an adjective.
In E, "perpetuate" is used without a noun. "Perpetuate" is a transitive verb that requires an object. For e.g. one perpetuates a myth.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2014, 13:45
PiyushK wrote:
First I will ask what is the source of this problem:
Second explanations provided above are not up to the mark.

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

Following is my analysis.
In absolute Phrase modifiers we prefer restrictive clause over non restrictive clause; I mean prefer that over which.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated -- originate is in present tense which conveys a fact, but perpetuated is in past tense. Thus, we can reject this choice, considering parallelism issue.

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated -- ed modifier no grammatical error.

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated -- ed modifier no grammatical error.

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated -- ing modifier and ed modifier no grammatical error both acting as adjective to language variations.

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating -- ing modifier no grammatical issue.

For more detail refer Chapter 11 - page 220 of MGMAT SC -- under topic "What else is considered Parallel" : Adjective, Past Participle and Present Participle (used as adjective). Above all elements whether -ed or -ing are modifying the noun language variations and are acting like adjective. Thus, elements are logically parallel to each other.

Further any expert can us help to identify subtle differences in above options.

My take on the above: For B & C I feel the word originated' conveys a meaning that all the dialects have already originated & no longer do they originate these days..

Between D & E: I cannot figure out any errors in these..

Also,
CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

perpetuating By is imprecise. Needs passive voice.

Can you please elaborate on this... why is it imprecise to use perpetuating by?

I enjoy the divine serenity of the view while walking by the lake
This is not passive & seems to be correct.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2014, 03:59
JusTLucK04 wrote:
My take on the above: For B & C I feel the word originated' conveys a meaning that all the dialects have already originated & no longer do they originate these days..

Between D & E: I cannot figure out any errors in these..

Also,

Hi, I think except A all other options are grammatically correct, but option A set an important context. In option A author is presenting a general fact that variations originate from ... blah blah.. and D is more parallel in tone to A than any other option.
Overall I can say this question is not matching the standard of official questions.
OA is still debatable.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2014, 04:08
There is no problem with this question. The errors have to do with parallelism, but also with the verb tenses, the parts of speech (of originate and perpetuate), and voice (for e.g. language variations are perpetuated (i.e. increased) by geographical isolation--here, you cannot use "perpetuating").
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2014, 05:41
Quote:

Can you please elaborate on this... why is it imprecise to use perpetuating by?

I enjoy the divine serenity of the view while walking by the lake
This is not passive & seems to be correct.

Sure!

The way you've used 'by' is not the way it has been used in the sentence.

In the example you've stated, 'by' means 'close by'

However, in the sentence, 'by' means 'by means of or through the act of'

So both the usages cannot be compared.

Coming to the question, The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations ... by geographic isolation.

'by' in the context requires past participle form for verb.

X is perpetuating by Y - Incorrect.
X is perpetuated by Y - Correct

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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2015, 09:59
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has   [#permalink] 28 Apr 2015, 09:59
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