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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has

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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink] New post 01 Jul 2004, 12:38
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A
B
C
D
E

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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.
(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating
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Re: SCB15 [#permalink] New post 01 Jul 2004, 13:56
boksana wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated


B is my best choice.

the pronoune that is needed here to define what kind of language variations the auther means.
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 [#permalink] New post 01 Jul 2004, 14:14
No, OA is different
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 [#permalink] New post 01 Jul 2004, 15:14
Could it be E, as a reduced defining clause? :stupid
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Re: SCB15 [#permalink] New post 01 Jul 2004, 22:35
boksana wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.
(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


D. Dialects originate and are perpetuated, therefore the first verb should be active and the second passive.
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Re: SCB15 [#permalink] New post 02 Jul 2004, 03:51
boksana wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.
(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


I think it's D, although E is quite tempting. However, E does change the meaning of the sentence slightly, almost imperceptibly.

Active voice: Geographic isolation perpetuates dialects.
Dialects are perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(E) Dialects perpetuating by geographic location. - doesn't sound so appealing now.
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 [#permalink] New post 02 Jul 2004, 05:24
let me try...

A ... for some difference... I m drawn towards D too....



have fun :)
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Re: SCB15 [#permalink] New post 02 Jul 2004, 06:11
SmashingGrace wrote:
boksana wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.
(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


I think it's D, although E is quite tempting. However, E does change the meaning of the sentence slightly, almost imperceptibly.

Active voice: Geographic isolation perpetuates dialects.
Dialects are perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(E) Dialects perpetuating by geographic location. - doesn't sound so appealing now.



All-

Why we need originating here? Please help me to understand..As those dialects originated in the past and don't we need past tense here?


:thanks
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 [#permalink] New post 02 Jul 2004, 07:03
Hi

Another vote for D. D seems to be the best of all.

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 [#permalink] New post 02 Jul 2004, 07:14
it is already explained by anand.

but i forgot the number of that question.

here is anand explantion.

I believe the only reason to choose D is that it is concise. Noun language variations is modified by a gerund phrase "originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages" and a participle phrase "perpetuated by geographic isolation."
This acceptable.
Similar example can be found in the most famous SC about Growth of railroads
http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=4967 http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=6107

it is basically high level of parallelism.
(which) originated from....
(which) were perpetuated by....
so it becomes originating from and perpetuated by

hope it helps
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 [#permalink] New post 03 Jul 2004, 10:03
I read up something on participles and it has cleared(some part) of my tenses understanding.

Present Participle ( eg. seeing,knowing )
Role- To show an action occurring at the same time as the verb.

<Working> on the fundamentals,the team slowly <began> to improve.

The action <began> happened in the past, at the same time the working happened.

So this justifies the ans D ( which I too didnt get).
A is not parallel, "and" changes the meaning slightly
B ( my org ans) is wrong because, it does not show the relation between origin and perpetuate. Both happened in the past, but only the use of the present participle tells us that both happened at the same time.
Dialects orginiate bcoz of .........
Dialects perpetuate bcoz of.........
Both happened at the same time. This is taken care of by the present participle.

Now that the question is taken care of, I'll continue with my exposition on participles. I'm explaining it so that I can understand it better myself and those people who don't know will probably benefit.

Past Participle and Present Perfect Participle
Role- To show an action that has occurred earlier than that of the verb.
Past Participle eg :
<Prepared> by last year's experience, the coach <knows> not to expect too much.

Here the action expressed by <knows> is in the present. <Prepared> happened earlier in time ( as compared to <knows>)

Present Perfect Participle eg:

<Having experimented> with several game plans, the coaching staff <devised> a master strategy.

Here <Having experimented> took place before at a time before the past tense verb <devised>.

Now , I hope we can use these concepts in SC :)
I think they are a bit complex, but can be ingrained in our minds with practice.
go for the kill !!!!!!!

- ash
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 [#permalink] New post 06 Jul 2004, 02:15
Quote:
Now , I hope we can use these concepts in SC :)
I think they are a bit complex, but can be ingrained in our minds with practice.
go for the kill !!!!!!!

- ash

In fact, and it was mentioned by OB, differenece between language variations that originated and language variations, originating is in the first variant language variations is the subject of the action (originate), while in second one it is object of the action (originate). In other words
D: language variations, originating=language variations that originate=language variations originate
B: language variations originated=language variations are originated by...
Tense does not make sense here.
  [#permalink] 06 Jul 2004, 02:15
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