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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has

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Re: regional dialects [#permalink] New post 29 Aug 2010, 01:28
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

A good explanation from demon on this one, but I just wanted to weigh in. This is a GMAT favorite trick, because students don't like paralleling -ing words with -ed words. However, when both are parallel this is okay. Remember, you can always change tense in parallel, even with verbs ("I liked to eat chicken but now I only like pork." That's past tense with present tense, joined by the conjunction "but"). But actually, tense isn't an issue here. Both -ing words and -ed words are participles, meaning they are just adjectives. Adjectives don't really HAVE tense (because they aren't verbs), so that's a second reason we shouldn't care. "Perpetuated" in this case is just passive, where as "originating" is active.

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: (First, which needs a comma before it). Okay, so it's the SECOND "and" here that marks the parallelism we care about (the other "and" parallels ethnic and cultural heritages, and is always correct). We're always concerned with whatever comes DIRECTLY after the parallel marker. In this case, we get "perpetuated". This is a participle, so we need another one earlier in the sentence. Instead, we get "originate", which is a present tense verb.

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: Again, we look after the marker "and" and find the participle "perpetuated". Unfortunately, "originated" here is a past tense verb, not a participle. How do we know? Consider the difference here:

I read the book. ("read" = past tense verb...it has a subject in the main clause, "I")
Read by millions, the book is one of the nation's most popular. ("read" = past participle, it's just a modifier, and we don't get the subject until it's the subject of a new clause "the book is...")

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: "Originated" can't be an action. This is just a misuse of the word. It may look parallel, but the participle of "originate" is "originating". Think about it. You can't put this in the past, because the word itself implies the past origin of something, even in the present tense (i.e. Originating in 1200 BC, the codex is the key to life itself).

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
ANSWER: Perpetuated = participle. Originating = participle. Parallel.

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating
PROBLEM: "Perpetuating by" doesn't make any sense. We need it to be passive, not active.

Hope that helps!

-tommy

Tommy, you mean to say was originated doesnt exist?
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Re: regional dialects [#permalink] New post 29 Aug 2010, 21:43
D sounded better to me but i picked C because i thot "originated" and "perpetuated" are parallel :(
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Re: regional dialects [#permalink] New post 24 Sep 2010, 09:34
Thanks Tommy for explanations!

Guys only think about the meaning of those two different words and read the following below:


Present participle is used in progressive tenses (continous tense).Also may be used as a noun, a noun modifier or a verb modifier. Tend to indicate ongoing action not necessarily at the present moment. Formed by adding -ing at the end.

Past participle used in perfect tenses and passive voice. It is also used as adjective. Tend to indicate completed action, although not necessarily in the past. (the tires will be punctured) Formed by edding -ed or -d at verb.
source MGMAT SC book.

originating - is not a completed action
perpetuated - is completed action.

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Re: regional dialects [#permalink] New post 05 Dec 2010, 07:16
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

A good explanation from demon on this one, but I just wanted to weigh in. This is a GMAT favorite trick, because students don't like paralleling -ing words with -ed words. However, when both are parallel this is okay. Remember, you can always change tense in parallel, even with verbs ("I liked to eat chicken but now I only like pork." That's past tense with present tense, joined by the conjunction "but"). But actually, tense isn't an issue here. Both -ing words and -ed words are participles, meaning they are just adjectives. Adjectives don't really HAVE tense (because they aren't verbs), so that's a second reason we shouldn't care. "Perpetuated" in this case is just passive, where as "originating" is active.

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: (First, which needs a comma before it). Okay, so it's the SECOND "and" here that marks the parallelism we care about (the other "and" parallels ethnic and cultural heritages, and is always correct). We're always concerned with whatever comes DIRECTLY after the parallel marker. In this case, we get "perpetuated". This is a participle, so we need another one earlier in the sentence. Instead, we get "originate", which is a present tense verb.

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: Again, we look after the marker "and" and find the participle "perpetuated". Unfortunately, "originated" here is a past tense verb, not a participle. How do we know? Consider the difference here:

I read the book. ("read" = past tense verb...it has a subject in the main clause, "I")
Read by millions, the book is one of the nation's most popular. ("read" = past participle, it's just a modifier, and we don't get the subject until it's the subject of a new clause "the book is...")

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: "Originated" can't be an action. This is just a misuse of the word. It may look parallel, but the participle of "originate" is "originating". Think about it. You can't put this in the past, because the word itself implies the past origin of something, even in the present tense (i.e. Originating in 1200 BC, the codex is the key to life itself).

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
ANSWER: Perpetuated = participle. Originating = participle. Parallel.

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating
PROBLEM: "Perpetuating by" doesn't make any sense. We need it to be passive, not active.

Hope that helps!

-tommy


Tommy , great explanation. But this approach will work only one knows "perpetuated" is a participle and a participle is required to correct the SC.
1. How do I find/check if a SC needs a participle or a verb?
2. Is Perpetuate - verb ?If yes what is the past tense of "perpetuate"?
I will appreciate your help here. Thanks.
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Re: regional dialects [#permalink] New post 17 Jul 2011, 06:14
Great question this!

Present participle in parallel with a past participle...
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Re: regional dialects [#permalink] New post 17 Jul 2011, 08:17
If this were the test I would pick D.
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Re: regional dialects [#permalink] New post 28 Aug 2011, 03:12
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


Can anybody please tell me why "HAS" (NOT Have) is used in the above problem (non-underlined part) ??
Thanks.
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Re: regional dialects [#permalink] New post 28 Aug 2011, 03:19
rishabh26jain wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


Can anybody please tell me why "HAS" (NOT Have) is used in the above problem (non-underlined part) ??
Thanks.


Good question!! No idea!! I think "have" makes sense because both "Increased popularity AND availability" have led to the decline. Use of "and" makes it plural. Anybody?
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Re: regional dialects [#permalink] New post 29 Aug 2011, 02:44
Good explaination by TommyWallach. selected D considering perpetuated as adjective.
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Re: regional dialects [#permalink] New post 29 Aug 2011, 02:48
rishabh26jain wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


Can anybody please tell me why "HAS" (NOT Have) is used in the above problem (non-underlined part) ??
Thanks.

May be because "THE" used at the start of the sentence
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Re: regional dialects [#permalink] New post 30 Aug 2011, 13:52
Expert's post
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

A good explanation from demon on this one, but I just wanted to weigh in. This is a GMAT favorite trick, because students don't like paralleling -ing words with -ed words. However, when both are parallel this is okay. Remember, you can always change tense in parallel, even with verbs ("I liked to eat chicken but now I only like pork." That's past tense with present tense, joined by the conjunction "but"). But actually, tense isn't an issue here. Both -ing words and -ed words are participles, meaning they are just adjectives. Adjectives don't really HAVE tense (because they aren't verbs), so that's a second reason we shouldn't care. "Perpetuated" in this case is just passive, where as "originating" is active.

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: (First, which needs a comma before it). Okay, so it's the SECOND "and" here that marks the parallelism we care about (the other "and" parallels ethnic and cultural heritages, and is always correct). We're always concerned with whatever comes DIRECTLY after the parallel marker. In this case, we get "perpetuated". This is a participle, so we need another one earlier in the sentence. Instead, we get "originate", which is a present tense verb.

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: Again, we look after the marker "and" and find the participle "perpetuated". Unfortunately, "originated" here is a past tense verb, not a participle. How do we know? Consider the difference here:

I read the book. ("read" = past tense verb...it has a subject in the main clause, "I")
Read by millions, the book is one of the nation's most popular. ("read" = past participle, it's just a modifier, and we don't get the subject until it's the subject of a new clause "the book is...")

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: "Originated" can't be an action. This is just a misuse of the word. It may look parallel, but the participle of "originate" is "originating". Think about it. You can't put this in the past, because the word itself implies the past origin of something, even in the present tense (i.e. Originating in 1200 BC, the codex is the key to life itself).

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
ANSWER: Perpetuated = participle. Originating = participle. Parallel.

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating
PROBLEM: "Perpetuating by" doesn't make any sense. We need it to be passive, not active.

Hope that helps!

-tommy


Tommy, when I scan your explenations everything become so clear..........thanks a lot . you are the man :)
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Re: regional dialects [#permalink] New post 01 Sep 2011, 07:57
Quote:
but the participle of "originate" is "originating".


Hi TommyWallach,

Can you give me more examples of the above kind of words ??

Thanks :)
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink] New post 29 Aug 2012, 11:09
Expert's post
One key thing to remember as well as to be noted down is:
Whenever an object is treated as the subject, then active voice with ing form of the verb will be correct. When some action is made upon that object, then passive voice with ed form of the verb is used.
In the question, regional dialects are being used as subject( originating) and object( perpetuated).
This is an important concept and GMAT likes to play with it.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink] New post 03 Sep 2012, 15:30
good question.

thanks for the explanation tommy. kudos to you
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink] New post 05 Oct 2013, 02:02
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink] New post 13 Oct 2013, 20:41
The key for me were the words 'has declined'. Originated would mean that they are done and dusted. But that is not the case. Hence I chose originating.
Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has   [#permalink] 13 Oct 2013, 20:41
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