The increased popularity and availability of televisions has : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# The increased popularity and availability of televisions has

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25 Oct 2009, 02:15
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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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02 May 2010, 10:25
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Hey All,

A good explanation from demon on this one, but I just wanted to weigh in. This is a GMAT favorite trick, because students don't like paralleling -ing words with -ed words. However, when both are parallel this is okay. Remember, you can always change tense in parallel, even with verbs ("I liked to eat chicken but now I only like pork." That's past tense with present tense, joined by the conjunction "but"). But actually, tense isn't an issue here. Both -ing words and -ed words are participles, meaning they are just adjectives. Adjectives don't really HAVE tense (because they aren't verbs), so that's a second reason we shouldn't care. "Perpetuated" in this case is just passive, where as "originating" is active.

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: (First, which needs a comma before it). Okay, so it's the SECOND "and" here that marks the parallelism we care about (the other "and" parallels ethnic and cultural heritages, and is always correct). We're always concerned with whatever comes DIRECTLY after the parallel marker. In this case, we get "perpetuated". This is a participle, so we need another one earlier in the sentence. Instead, we get "originate", which is a present tense verb.

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: Again, we look after the marker "and" and find the participle "perpetuated". Unfortunately, "originated" here is a past tense verb, not a participle. How do we know? Consider the difference here:

I read the book. ("read" = past tense verb...it has a subject in the main clause, "I")
Read by millions, the book is one of the nation's most popular. ("read" = past participle, it's just a modifier, and we don't get the subject until it's the subject of a new clause "the book is...")

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: "Originated" can't be an action. This is just a misuse of the word. It may look parallel, but the participle of "originate" is "originating". Think about it. You can't put this in the past, because the word itself implies the past origin of something, even in the present tense (i.e. Originating in 1200 BC, the codex is the key to life itself).

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
ANSWER: Perpetuated = participle. Originating = participle. Parallel.

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating
PROBLEM: "Perpetuating by" doesn't make any sense. We need it to be passive, not active.

Hope that helps!

-tommy
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2009, 08:09
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sacmanitin wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

Good question. Initially I chose B thinking of parallelism.
I tried to find explanations for D being correct and B being wrong from other sites using google.
The explanation looks like this:
B: language variations that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and (language variations that) perpetuated by geographic isolation.
the second part look awkward when considering the content in bracket. it would have been better if (language variations that) were perpetuated by geographic isolation.
So B is wrong.
in D parallelism is maintained because participles are used on both sides of 'and' (originating and perpetuated). It seems that it is ok to use the two tenses as long as both are participles . Now, why is one (participle) present continuous and one past? One plausible explanation I found was that ethnic and cultural heritages are in a state of flux (so continuous) and geographic isolation is fixed (so past).
I don't know if its ok to post links, otherwise i would have pasted the links too.
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09 Nov 2009, 01:32
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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated--------INCORRECT (Perpetuated brings about incorrect parallelism)
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-----INCORRECT (Same as A)
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated------INCORRECT (Wrong meaning. Need originating)
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-----CORRECT (establishes correct meaning)
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating-------INCORRECT (perpetuating by is wrong)

IMO D

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27 Oct 2009, 22:39
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sacmanitin wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

I got D. What I was aware about was the fact that past-tense wouldn't work. If past-tense is used it is implicitly assumed that dialects is a "dead" phenomenon. Which isn't the case. This eliminates B and C. A is obviously wrong. That leaves D and E, and E has the wrong form of perpetuate.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2010, 09:34
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Thanks Tommy for explanations!

Guys only think about the meaning of those two different words and read the following below:

Present participle is used in progressive tenses (continous tense).Also may be used as a noun, a noun modifier or a verb modifier. Tend to indicate ongoing action not necessarily at the present moment. Formed by adding -ing at the end.

Past participle used in perfect tenses and passive voice. It is also used as adjective. Tend to indicate completed action, although not necessarily in the past. (the tires will be punctured) Formed by edding -ed or -d at verb.
source MGMAT SC book.

originating - is not a completed action
perpetuated - is completed action.

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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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11 Oct 2014, 06:36
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Keysersoze10 wrote:
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

A good explanation from demon on this one, but I just wanted to weigh in. This is a GMAT favorite trick, because students don't like paralleling -ing words with -ed words. However, when both are parallel this is okay. Remember, you can always change tense in parallel, even with verbs ("I liked to eat chicken but now I only like pork." That's past tense with present tense, joined by the conjunction "but"). But actually, tense isn't an issue here. Both -ing words and -ed words are participles, meaning they are just adjectives. Adjectives don't really HAVE tense (because they aren't verbs), so that's a second reason we shouldn't care. "Perpetuated" in this case is just passive, where as "originating" is active.

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: (First, which needs a comma before it). Okay, so it's the SECOND "and" here that marks the parallelism we care about (the other "and" parallels ethnic and cultural heritages, and is always correct). We're always concerned with whatever comes DIRECTLY after the parallel marker. In this case, we get "perpetuated". This is a participle, so we need another one earlier in the sentence. Instead, we get "originate", which is a present tense verb.

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: Again, we look after the marker "and" and find the participle "perpetuated". Unfortunately, "originated" here is a past tense verb, not a participle. How do we know? Consider the difference here:

I read the book. ("read" = past tense verb...it has a subject in the main clause, "I")
Read by millions, the book is one of the nation's most popular. ("read" = past participle, it's just a modifier, and we don't get the subject until it's the subject of a new clause "the book is...")

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: "Originated" can't be an action. This is just a misuse of the word. It may look parallel, but the participle of "originate" is "originating". Think about it. You can't put this in the past, because the word itself implies the past origin of something, even in the present tense (i.e. Originating in 1200 BC, the codex is the key to life itself).

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
ANSWER: Perpetuated = participle. Originating = participle. Parallel.

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating
PROBLEM: "Perpetuating by" doesn't make any sense. We need it to be passive, not active.

Hope that helps!

-tommy

Thanks Tommy for the explanation. I have a question here, shouldn't "regional dialects, language variations" be connected by 'and' here?

Dear Keysersoze10,

That's a brilliant question. here's my take on this -

The clause after the comma, modifies regional dialects and thus tries to explain what regional dialect is. By using and, the meaning of the sentence would have changed the meaning.

Here's an example

1 The recent spread of Ebola, a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates caused by the Ebola virus, has united the world to fight the disease.
2. The recent spread of Ebola and a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates caused by the Ebola virus, have united the world to fight the disease.

I hope you can understand the difference between the above two sentences.

Hope that helps you.
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Last edited by UmangMathur on 12 Oct 2014, 07:41, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2009, 06:11
I guess D and E can be rejected as simple tense should be used.
A and D lack parallelism
It should be eighter B or C as I am unaware of the rule which states that when we can omit "that".

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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2009, 18:30
IMO B.

that originated ----- and perpetuated - parallel
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2009, 22:34
Should be B.
B and E are parallel in terms of verb tense, however in E 'originating' is not correct as the languages have already 'originated'
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25 Oct 2009, 22:57
^^ Can you please explain how you dissmissed C ?
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25 Oct 2009, 23:28
Acc3ss wrote:
^^ Can you please explain how you dissmissed C ?

A demonstrative pronoun 'that' is needed otherwise the sentence is incomplete.
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27 Oct 2009, 03:27
friends OA is D ,re-work and make me work too
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27 Oct 2009, 06:01
V Good question
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02 Nov 2009, 00:18
@ andershv
i think you would like to re-consider your approach or may be i got it wrong ,
originating and perpetuated are modifying language variation,so language variation is originating and then perpentuated ,i hope that makes sense
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02 Nov 2009, 08:21
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20 Apr 2010, 17:51
Nice post by speeddeamon...thanks...
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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02 May 2010, 03:21
speeddeamon wrote:
sacmanitin wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

Good question. Initially I chose B thinking of parallelism.
I tried to find explanations for D being correct and B being wrong from other sites using google.
The explanation looks like this:
B: language variations that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and (language variations that) perpetuated by geographic isolation.
the second part look awkward when considering the content in bracket. it would have been better if (language variations that) were perpetuated by geographic isolation.
So B is wrong.
in D parallelism is maintained because participles are used on both sides of 'and' (originating and perpetuated). It seems that it is ok to use the two tenses as long as both are participles . Now, why is one (participle) present continuous and one past? One plausible explanation I found was that ethnic and cultural heritages are in a state of flux (so continuous) and geographic isolation is fixed (so past).
I don't know if its ok to post links, otherwise i would have pasted the links too.

That was a good explanation. Very tricky question.
Thanks for the post.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2010, 17:05
to originate, in this case, is an intransitive verb. To perpetuate is transitive
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2010, 17:18
Hey Cagdasgurpinar,

Participles can't really be transitive or intransitive, because they're adjectives (though the associated verbs can be one or the other).

-t
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has   [#permalink] 15 Aug 2010, 17:18

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