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The majority of successful senior managers do not closely

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The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink] New post 27 Aug 2011, 09:09
The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed “intuition” to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process of thinking.

Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness.
Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers’ intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an “Aha!” experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns. One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from acting. Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert.
Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution.
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


2. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) evaluation of a problem
(B) creation of possible solutions to a problem
(C) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
(D) action undertaken in order to discover more information about a problem
(E) comparison of the probable effects of different solutions to a problem
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?
(A) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
(B) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.
(C) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
(D) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C



Can someone please explain me the answers to these questions?? What should be the right approach to answer these types of questions?

I having trouble with answering "EXCEPT" type and Inference type questions. I take too long and confused in answer choices. Please help!!!

Last edited by fameatop on 16 Sep 2013, 21:02, edited 3 times in total.
OA added & Formatted
Manager
Manager
Joined: 28 May 2011
Posts: 197
Location: United States
Concentration: General Management, International Business
GMAT 1: 720 Q49 V38
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Re: OG Passage [#permalink] New post 27 Aug 2011, 10:22
teal wrote:

1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?

(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.

(OA) : E


Why is the answer E ...............I can't see that??
Detail Question : A line ("Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly") in second para gives the support for the last option. Rest all don't find any support in the passage




2. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) evaluation of a problem
(B) creation of possible solutions to a problem
(C) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
(D) action undertaken in order to discover more information about a problem
(E) comparison of the probable effects of different solutions to a problem

OA: D
Detail Question : Need to re-read first few lines of the first para. There author has mentioned few items. We need to identify one option that is not specified in one of those option.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?
(A) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
(B) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.
(C) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
(D) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.
(E) Manger Y depends on day-to-day tactical maneuvering; manager X does not.

OA: C
Detail Question : First para gives half of the information (The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first ......, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision.) to answer this question. for other half, we required to look at last few lines of second para (One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from acting. Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later.)

Can someone please explain me the answers to these questions?? What should be the right approach to answer these types of questions?
Frankly, even I don't think there is any specific approach to attack these question types, because all the questions in this passage need you to read the passage and understand it. General process of skimming the passage may not work in these type of scenarios.

I having trouble with answering "EXCEPT" type and Inference type questions. I take too long and confused in answer choices. Please help!!!
For EXCEPT question, first it is very important to ensure that you understand the question and than able to negate it in your mind. If you have done so, you can treat these questions like any other question (Inference, main idea, etc..) and approach will vary depending on the question type.

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Re: OG Passage   [#permalink] 27 Aug 2011, 10:22
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