The MGMT SC has the following sentences -
By 1945, the US had been at war for several years.
Here we use past perfect, because we have a time reference - 1945. So no need for the simple past. There are however 2 phases
1. by 1945 - replaces simple past
2. the US had been at war for several years - this happened before 1945, so past perfect.. Ok so far so good.
The band U2 was just one of the many new groups on the rock music scene in the early 1980's, but less than ten years later, U2 had fully eclipsed its early rivals in the pantheon of popular music.
Again 2 phases
1. 1980s - simple past, was is used
2. ten years later, 1970s - had eclipsed used for a closer event?
I don't understand this example, should the past perfect not always refer to an earlier event? What am I missing?
Consider kudos, they are good for health