The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances

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The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2007, 19:03
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The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are known to stimulate certain receptors in the brain. To investigate the function of cannabinoids, researchers injected newborn mice with a chemical that is known to block cannabinoides from reaching their receptors in the brain. The injected mice showed far less interest in feeding than normal newborn mice do. Therefore, cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their
mothers’ milk.
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals’ milk that stimulate the appetite.
C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.
D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids.
E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2007, 19:05
Assumption: "feeding" involves receptor action so B follows
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2007, 19:14
singh_amit19 wrote:
The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are known to stimulate certain receptors in the brain. To investigate the function of cannabinoids, researchers injected newborn mice with a chemical that is known to block cannabinoides from reaching their receptors in the brain. The injected mice showed far less interest in feeding than normal newborn mice do. Therefore, cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their
mothers’ milk.
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals’ milk that stimulate the appetite.
C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.
D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids.
E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite.

this was between B and E but i think E is a stronger assumption. it could be that the chemicals they injected caused the mice's appetites to decrease and not the absence of cannabinoids
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2007, 19:22
beckee529 wrote:
singh_amit19 wrote:
The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are known to stimulate certain receptors in the brain. To investigate the function of cannabinoids, researchers injected newborn mice with a chemical that is known to block cannabinoides from reaching their receptors in the brain. The injected mice showed far less interest in feeding than normal newborn mice do. Therefore, cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their
mothers’ milk.
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals’ milk that stimulate the appetite.
C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.
D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids.
E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite.

this was between B and E but i think E is a stronger assumption. it could be that the chemicals they injected caused the mice's appetites to decrease and not the absence of cannabinoids

You are correct OA is E....please explain a little more on E!
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2007, 21:19
singh_amit19 wrote:
The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are known to stimulate certain receptors in the brain. To investigate the function of cannabinoids, researchers injected newborn mice with a chemical that is known to block cannabinoides from reaching their receptors in the brain. The injected mice showed far less interest in feeding than normal newborn mice do. Therefore, cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their
mothers’ milk.
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals’ milk that stimulate the appetite.
C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.
D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids.
E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite.

E.

The only variables that were different between the control group "normal newborn mice" and "injected newborn mice" was the chemical and the cannabinoids. Since we're testing for the latter, if we can fault the chemical, then the experiment is not valid.

B is not as strong because say, for instance, the chemical caused them to have only 10% of the energy they normally would have. This would not be a direct change in their appetite, but they may show low-appetite behavior.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2007, 22:17
The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors "does not independently inhibit the appetite"
can u pls clarify on this
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2007, 06:52
ajay85 wrote:
The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors "does not independently inhibit the appetite"
can u pls clarify on this

Means it does not of its own accord (meaning by its own presence) inhibit appetite instead of indirectly inhibiting apetite by blocking canabinoids as mentioned in the passage.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2007, 06:30
singh_amit19 wrote:
The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are known to stimulate certain receptors in the brain. To investigate the function of cannabinoids, researchers injected newborn mice with a chemical that is known to block cannabinoides from reaching their receptors in the brain. The injected mice showed far less interest in feeding than normal newborn mice do. Therefore, cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their
mothers’ milk.
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals’ milk that stimulate the appetite.
C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.
D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids.
E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite.

Its E....A--->B ..you have to make sure that there is no C --->B

or in simpler words there is no other alternative paths to the conclusion
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2007, 17:51
singh_amit19 wrote:
The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are known to stimulate certain receptors in the brain. To investigate the function of cannabinoids, researchers injected newborn mice with a chemical that is known to block cannabinoides from reaching their receptors in the brain. The injected mice showed far less interest in feeding than normal newborn mice do. Therefore, cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their
mothers’ milk.
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals’ milk that stimulate the appetite.
C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.
D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids.
E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite.

E.

A: this was my contendor til I read E. But its weak.
B: this assumption is too extreme.
C: irrelevant
D: Irrelevant

E suggests that possibly the chemical was the cause. If this were the case the argument would be weakend. So E it is.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2007, 18:30
agree with E.

If the chemical blocks appetite that it does not matter if it blocks cannabinoids.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2014, 20:00
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My explanation:

E

Scenario
Two Groups of Mice
Group 1: the control group and had no chemical blocking cannabinoids.

Result
Group 2 showed less interest in eating therefore cannabinoids function is stimulating appetite.

Negation of E: However, what if the chemical used in blocking cannabinoids by itself blocked the appetite? Then, this invalidates the experiment and thus the argument, and we can't say that cannabinoids stimulates appetite, because the chemical would be the one responsible for blocking the appetite.

Moderators, please change the OA to E according to Stacey's reply here: http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/cr- ... -t682.html.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2015, 15:40
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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06 May 2016, 02:25
The answer is option E. My understanding :

Conclusion : Cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite

Premises : Cannabinoids stimulate inhibitors ; Mice were injected with chemicals to counter the effect of Cannabinoids ; Mice showed less appetite.
The author reasons that because cannabinoids did not reach the receptors and mice showed lesser appetite, cannabinoids stimulate appetite.

Pre-thinking : This is an assumption type question, so what is the gap between the stated facts and the conclusion ? What if something else led to reduced appetite ? We need to negate this possibility.

Sift through the answer options; only E fits the bill. B is in the race but looses out .... because how does it matter if it is the "only" substance or not ? Run a negation test on E and your conclusion breaks.

Hence E it is !
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2016, 21:34
This an Assumption and Causality type of question - in which the speaker concludes that one occurrence caused another, and that the speaker also assumes that the stated cause is the only possible cause of the effect and that the stated cause will always produce the effect.

One way to attack such a question is to find an alternate cause for the stated effect and make sure that the author eliminates it.

In our case cannabinoides might cause mice to lose their appetite. what if something else is causing it?
Since the author assumes that nothing else causes the loss of appetite - he must assume that no other cause exists (e.g. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite). Therefore, E is the correct answer.

Also, E acts as a defender in this assumption question, and if you negate E - the conclusion falls apart.

The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does independently inhibit the appetite. So, if the chemical inhibits the appetite, then the author must be wrong in concluding that cannabinoides inhibits the appetite
Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances   [#permalink] 04 Oct 2016, 21:34
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