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# The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of

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The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  29 Apr 2012, 20:44
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17. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Q1) Is it ok not to use "as" after than in the context of the sentence above?
(This is the reason that I picked C)

Q2) Does "from examining tools" have a problem?
If it have, what is it?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by mau5 on 16 Sep 2013, 04:59, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the Q
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Re: sc prep #17 [#permalink]  29 Apr 2012, 23:24
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Where is option B?

E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
perserve parallel structure of "systematic hunter of..." with "scavengers of meat", has emerged is the correct tense with "found"
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Re: sc prep #17 [#permalink]  02 May 2012, 21:00
To Hfbamafan,
OA is E. It is hidden. Drag your mouse to where "spoiler" is.

To catty2004
I am not sure what happened to b. b wasn't in the question when I got the question.
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Re: sc prep #17 [#permalink]  03 May 2012, 06:49
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Hi,
First of all, here is the question with all answer choices.

The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be above 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

eybrj2 wrote:
Q1) Is it ok not to use "as" after than in the context of the sentence above?
(This is the reason that I picked C)

Q2) Does "from examining tools" have a problem?
If it have, what is it?

Answer to your first question: Yes, it is alright to not repeat “as” after “rather than” because it is implied or understood. “As” already appears once in the sentence. Another thing that we need to note in Choice C is parallelism. In the parallel list, the first entity is “hunters of large animals” and the second one is “meat scavengers”. Now, it is not always necessary for the entities in the parallel list to be absolutely parallel. However, in this case, it is possible. We can write “meat scavengers” as “scavengers of meat” that will make the entities absolutely parallel. So go for it.

Answer to your second question: Yes, “examining tools” have a little problem. Here “examining” is now an adjective that is modifying “tools”, suggesting that the “tools” are used for examining things. It no longer conveys that the new image has emerged from the examination of the tool.

Let’s take these sentences:
The smile of the baby is beautiful. (smile is beautiful)
The smiling baby is beautiful. (baby is beautiful)
So be careful of the change in the words in the original choice. They might change the meaning of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: sc prep #17 [#permalink]  03 May 2012, 19:02
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The core problem in this issue is not about the use of the term ‘examining’, namely, whether it is an adjective or a gerund in the context.

Step1: The problem here is more about the use of the relative pronouns ‘which and that’ in B,C and D, in which the touch rule has been grossly flouted. In all the three cases, the implication is that Germany includes some tools, which is just meaningless. Eliminate all of them with a sleight of hand

Step 2: That said, between A and E, which use the participial ‘including’, to modify freely any fitting noun in the foregoing portion. E is better because it keeps the parallelism in ‘hunters and scavengers’ in tact rather than in ‘hunters and scavenging’
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  17 Sep 2013, 10:43
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  13 Mar 2014, 13:34
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17. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including --- S-V ERROR The image - have (X)
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include --- like A
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes --- that refers to Germany as verb includes is singular.
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes --- Like C
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including --- I dont know what kind of modifier is this but logically its describing tools.. is it an absolute phrase ? i am not sure.. but this option is best through POE.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  16 Mar 2014, 23:07
In the Question
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be above 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

In the Question there is parallelism of comparison
hunters of large animals vs scavenging for meat - - - which is not parallel.
So Options A, B and C are out

We have D and E in these options we have "which includes" and "including"

I find option D to be correct because in this question we are speaking about those 3 Wooden tools found in germany because of which the Whole idea got changed.

If the answer choice is E) then the three wooden tools were one of the thing that changed the idea.

Please throw some light on this.

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  17 Mar 2014, 01:07
Reg. "I find option D to be correct because in this question we are speaking about those 3 Wooden tools found in germany because of which the Whole idea got changed."

If we are talking about those tools (plural), then "includes" should have been "include".
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  15 Jun 2014, 02:20
eybrj2 wrote:
17. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

Would D option be correct if it would have been which include instead of includes?
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  16 Jun 2014, 05:04
[quote="eybrj2"]17. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

in option D, If which is used to refer tp "the examination of tools " which would be singular then i think the usage of includes would be correct.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  16 Jun 2014, 05:43
Refer this video: to understand use of including
including is a special participle modifier.
http://vimeo.com/15391844
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  16 Jun 2014, 17:56
But my question still stays! will D be correct if it is include instead of includes?
"tools found in Germany" in this found in Germany modifies tools and thus which would in turn modify tools?
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  17 Jun 2014, 00:47
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But my question still stays! will D be correct if it is include instead of includes?
"tools found in Germany" in this found in Germany modifies tools and thus which would in turn modify tools?

Yes, sentence will be correct if you replace includes with include in following sentence.

Plural verb will look for nearest plural noun and that is tools not Germany. Thus, such sentence is considered fine.

D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  17 Jun 2014, 03:21
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akshat1989 wrote:
But my question still stays! will D be correct if it is include instead of includes?
"tools found in Germany" in this found in Germany modifies tools and thus which would in turn modify tools?

Hi akshat1989,
This is in response to your PM.

Let’s first try to understand the modification of a slightly far away placed noun by ‘which’:
Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber her letters to anyone else.

In the above sentence, the modifier ‘which’ jumps over the preceding noun “Susan Huntington Dickinson” to modify “Emily Dickinson’s letters”. This modification is possible since the phrase ‘to Susan Huntington Dickinson’ cannot be placed anywhere else without changing the intended meaning of the sentence. Also, it does not make sense for 'which' to modify "Susan Huntington Dickinson" since this gives an illogical meaning that Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period.

Please refer to the following article to know more how a noun modifier can modify slightly far away nouns:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

• The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
o which include three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

Now, since the modifier “found in Germany” refers to ‘tools’, we can’t place it anywhere else in the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence. So, 'which' jumps over “found in Germany” to modify "tools".
Also, there is no ambiguity in this modification since the plural verb ‘include’ tells us that ‘which’ is plural and hence it should have a plural antecedent. So, the only logical antecedent for ‘which’ is ‘tools’.
So, this sentence would be correct if the verb ‘includes’ is replaced by ‘include’.

Hope this helps!
Deepak
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  17 Jun 2014, 03:25
Thanks Deepak,
Very nicely explained ! Kudos to the e-gmat team again! you guys have been simply brilliant
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  17 Jun 2014, 18:10
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/the ... t2421.html

A nice explanation by ron
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The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  19 Jun 2014, 00:26
Though we prefer perfect parallelism, but in most of the correct answers we just see precise parallelism.

I have divided elements of parallelism in two categories:

Markers: AND / OR / RATHER THAN / NOT ONLY ... BUT ALSO / NOT ... BUT ... etc...
Repeaters: IN / WITH / BY / AS / ON / FROM / TO / ... etc

Markers appears only once and they suggest presence of parallelism.
Repeaters appears with elements of parallelism. Either repeaters can come once in the beginning or they must repeat with each element. They exactly works like element placed outside bracket.
x(a+b+c & + d) or xa + xb + xc & +xd

Similarly in option C: as is placed initially once with the element one and then it depends whether author wants to repeat it further... both ways use is correct.

in gmat : xa + xb + c & +xd is always wrong... and such small change in sentence is very difficult to identify specially in long list of multiple elements.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of [#permalink]  11 Nov 2015, 18:29
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of   [#permalink] 11 Nov 2015, 18:29
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