The nineteenth-century chemist Humphry Davy presented the results of his early experiments in his "Essay on Heat and Light", a critique of all chemistry since Robert Boyle as well as a vision of a new chemistry that Davy hoped to found.
(A) a critique of all chemistry since Robert Boyle as well as a vision of a
(B) a critique of all chemistry following Robert Boyle and also his envisioning of a
(C) a critique of all chemistry after Robert Boyle and envisioning as well
(D) critiquing all chemistry from Robert Boyle forward and also a vision of
(E) critiquing all the chemistry done since Robert Boyle as well as his own envisioning of
"Essay on Heat and Light" is a title, so we need an explanation of what this title refers to. In other words, we need a noun, not a verb. Thus, D/E gone.
A) "a critique of... as well as... a vision of" is parallel, so this sounds good
B) "following Robert Boyle" is ambiguous and distorts the intended meaning of the author. The chemistry is not following Robert, is it? "his envisioning" incorrectly refers to Boyle, instead of Davy. B gone
C) This option looks good up until the present participle envisioning. This messes up the parallel structure. Also "envisioning as well new chemistry" sounds weird, and does not preserve the intended meaning of the author. C gone
So we go with A