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The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists

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The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2010, 10:33
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The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists for their discovery that plastic can be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led to improvements in film, television screens, and windows.

A. that plastic can be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led
C. that plastic can be made to be electrically conductive, and this advance led
E. of plastic being able to be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2010, 11:46
discovery that ---> eliminates all except a,b,c
B uses "leading" which is progressive.
C is passive "made to be".
Now the inclination for A is because it says that discovery was done sometime back in the past. "has led" is present perfect.

If you eliminate on "has led" the answer is clear A since E uses "being".
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2010, 12:14
I think it is D
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2010, 12:26
pragnyaparamita, welcome to the club.
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2010, 02:30
OA is A. Great job guys.
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2010, 09:31
The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists for their discovery that plastic can be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led to improvements in film, television screens, and windows.

A. that plastic can be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led - CORRECT
C. that plastic can be made to be electrically conductive, and this advance led - "to be" is wordy and awkward in GMAT…should be eliminated
D. of plastic's ability to be made electrically conductive, with this advance leading - "plastic's ability " is incorrect and "to be" is wordy and awkward in GMAT…should be eliminated
E. of plastic being able to be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led - " being able to be " is incorrect
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2010, 09:48
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The verb has to be "has led". Between A and E, I'd choose A since E is awkward.
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2010, 08:26
After discovery you need that, rules out last to choices, the best among A B C is A

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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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13 Jan 2011, 03:52
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let us remember what is present perfect tense.

The present perfect is a grammatical combination of the present tense and the perfect aspect, used to express a past event that has present consequences

In this SC you have to realize that X happened and now this dicovery has present consequences. Now guess what tense should you use ?! good.

based on the above you may cross out all except for A and E. just compare them and find out that E is very wrong using "being able to be".

The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists for their discovery that plastic can be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led to improvements in film, television screens, and windows.

A. that plastic can be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led
C. that plastic can be made to be electrically conductive, and this advance led
E. of plastic being able to be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2011, 03:02
thangduong wrote:
I DO NOT AGREE

ACCORDING THE COMPREHENSIVE GRAMMAR, 1700 PAGES, WRITEN BY 4 LEADING AUTHORS OF GRAMMAR

NOUN HAVING DONE dose not exist

NOUN DOING mean NOUN WILL DO, NOUN HAD DONE, NOUN DO, ....Because DOING have no time and can take any time.

I LEARING ENGLISH IS TIRIED means

I WHO WILL LEARN ENGLIS IS TIRED
I WHO LARNED ENGLISH IS TIRED
I WHO LEARN ENGLISH IS TIRED
.......

that is why I ask you why B is wrong.

it looks like you are screamning using the CapsLock .
it is not respectful toward others. Please be respectful.

Quote:
I LEARING ENGLISH IS TIRIED
- it is completly wrong sentence. it seems that English is tired.

Quote:
NOUN HAVING DONE
- are you sure that having done is a noun? it seems you are mistakes nouns and verbs.

Quote:
I WHO
- is quite awkward as for me.

Quote:
Because DOING have no time and can take any time.
- it is progressive or continuous tense in this case.
Present participle are not referred to a specific time. but progressive tenses are referred to the action which is performed now.
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2011, 06:45
ykaiim wrote:
The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists for their discovery that plastic can be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led to improvements in film, television screens, and windows.

A. that plastic can be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led
C. that plastic can be made to be electrically conductive, and this advance led
E. of plastic being able to be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led

D and E are wrong because of wordy. B is wrong because of "leading". C is wrong because "can be made to be" is wordy. => A is correct.
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2014, 22:04
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2014, 07:32
The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists for their discovery that plastic can be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led to improvements in film, television screens, and windows.

A. that plastic can be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led
C. that plastic can be made to be electrically conductive, and this advance led - Uses and to describe cause-effect
D. of plastic's ability to be made electrically conductive, with this advance leading -WHY IS THIS WRONG?
E. of plastic being able to be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led - being is red-flag

Why is B & D wrong?
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2014, 05:46
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amenon55 wrote:
Why is B wrong?

Generally speaking, when this (a demonstrative pronoun) refers to something within the sentence itself, it is almost always incorrect. For example, in this case, this advance is referring to a fact already mentioned within the sentence: that plastic can be made electrically conductive.

Basically it seems to be a matter of stylistic preference of GMAT. I did a quick scan of OG-13 and found 3 more such instances of incorrect options:

#51 option C
A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life maybe so brisk that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make sense of speech.

Notice that this refers to a fact already mentioned within the sentence: the hampered ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words.

#81 option C
Fossils of the arm of a sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old, making this the earliest known mammal of the Greater Antilles Islands

Notice that this refers to an entity already mentioned within the sentence: sloth.

#115 option D
Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

Notice that this refers to a fact already mentioned within the sentence: Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code.

amenon55 wrote:
Why is D wrong?

This obviously totally changes the meaning of the original sentence. Scientists did not discover plastic's ability; they discovered something about plastic: that plastic can be made electrically conductive.
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2014, 10:45
EducationAisle wrote:
amenon55 wrote:
Why is B wrong?

Generally speaking, when this (a demonstrative pronoun) refers to something within the sentence itself, it is almost always incorrect. For example, in this case, this advance is referring to a fact already mentioned within the sentence: that plastic can be made electrically conductive.

Basically it seems to be a matter of stylistic preference of GMAT. I did a quick scan of OG-13 and found 3 more such instances of incorrect options:

#51 option C
A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life maybe so brisk that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make sense of speech.

Notice that this refers to a fact already mentioned within the sentence: the hampered ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words.

#81 option C
Fossils of the arm of a sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old, making this the earliest known mammal of the Greater Antilles Islands

Notice that this refers to an entity already mentioned within the sentence: sloth.

#115 option D
Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

Notice that this refers to a fact already mentioned within the sentence: Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code.

amenon55 wrote:
Why is D wrong?

This obviously totally changes the meaning of the original sentence. Scientists did not discover plastic's ability; they discovered something about plastic: that plastic can be made electrically conductive.

so using this when referring to something withing the sentence is generally incorrect?
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2014, 10:50
amenon55 wrote:
so using this when referring to something withing the sentence is generally incorrect?

As I mentioned, I did a scan in OG and this indeed seems to be the case.

However, if you (or someone else) do come across any official sentence where this observation does not hold true, do highlight, as it will be interesting to see. For the most part however, this indeed seems to be the case.
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2014, 20:22
Not completely true. The OG examples quoted use "this" as a pronoun. In this question, "this" is used as an adjective to the noun "advance".

The GMAT doesn't prefer the use of "this" as a pronoun. But there's no such rule or preference regarding the use of "this" as an adjective.

Here is a perfectly valid construction (in terms of grammar; meaning-wise, it still doesn't cut it):
The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists for their discovery that plastic can be made electrically conductive, and this advance has led to improvements in blah-blah.

Let's take a simpler example:
He read The Book of Secrets, a book that has given him much knowledge.
He read The Book of Secrets, this book giving him much knowledge.

The abstract "a book" is the preferred modifier. You would need a conjunction or a preposition before "this".

The other problem with B relates to the use of tense. The participle "leading" "takes on" the tense of the main clause. Assuming the use of "this" in B is correct, the use of "leading" yields the following meaning: the discovery "led" to improvements in blah-blah.

Now go back and note the sequence of events. The discovery occurred first. The prize was awarded later. Using the simple past tense "led" makes it unclear when the improvements occurred. The only other event in the simple past tense in the sentence (directly mentioned) is "was awarded", so "led" might go with it -- but the subject of "led", "this advance", i.e. the discovery, occurred earlier.

The use of the present perfect tense in A yields the logical meaning: the improvements started with the discovery and continue to occur.

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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2014, 21:26
Quote:
The other problem with B relates to the use of tense. The participle "leading" "takes on" the tense of the main clause. Assuming the use of "this" in B is correct, the use of "leading" yields the following meaning: the discovery "led" to improvements in blah-blah.

Now go back and note the sequence of events. The discovery occurred first. The prize was awarded later. Using the simple past tense "led" makes it unclear when the improvements occurred. The only other event in the simple past tense in the sentence (directly mentioned) is "was awarded", so "led" might go with it -- but the subject of "led", "this advance", i.e. the discovery, occurred earlier.

If this was indeed correct, then I don't believe there is any tense issue in B. Participial phrases neatly depict cause and effect. So, advance is the cause, while leading is the effect.

Quote:
The use of the present perfect tense in A yields the logical meaning: the improvements started with the discovery and continue to occur.

I don't believe that present perfect here in any way suggests that improvements continue to occur.
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Last edited by EducationAisle on 13 Jul 2014, 23:07, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2014, 23:23
Options B,C,D,E come into the picture when there is something wrong in the sentence given in A in terms of Grammar,meaning and concision. So A is the better answer when compared to the rest in this case
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Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2014, 18:45
Hi There,

Thank you for an excellent note!

Pointing out back the rules really helps.
I guess what made me go for E on this question was that, the use of -that- in "their discovery that plastic". I thought that it just sounded awkward and that of may be better, to pick E, though I realize that "being able to be" was wrong as well. So i guess picking between 2 evils I choose E.

Anyway, if you could explain why "that" is fine in there, and possibly point to a rule, that would be fantastic!

Very Grateful,

Yela:)

PTK wrote:
let us remember what is present perfect tense.

The present perfect is a grammatical combination of the present tense and the perfect aspect, used to express a past event that has present consequences

In this SC you have to realize that X happened and now this dicovery has present consequences. Now guess what tense should you use ?! good.

based on the above you may cross out all except for A and E. just compare them and find out that E is very wrong using "being able to be".

The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists for their discovery that plastic can be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led to improvements in film, television screens, and windows.

A. that plastic can be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led
C. that plastic can be made to be electrically conductive, and this advance led
E. of plastic being able to be made electrically conductive—an advance that has led
Re: The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists   [#permalink] 30 Dec 2014, 18:45

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