The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense

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The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye.
(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye
(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible
(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it
(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible
(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible

I am looking for a good explanation for answer pick.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Harley1980 on 22 Jun 2015, 13:19, edited 1 time in total.
If you have any questions
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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02 May 2010, 04:05
beckee529 wrote:
The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye.
(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye
(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible
(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it
(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible
(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible

I am looking for a good explanation for answer pick.

C, D and E: it's not clear what the "it" is referring to.
B: "making it invisible" is misplaced and modifies "eye" changing the meaning.
A: is clear and grammatically correct.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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12 May 2010, 02:19
cano wrote:
beckee529 wrote:
The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye.
(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye
(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible
(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it
(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible
(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible

I am looking for a good explanation for answer pick.

C, D and E: it's not clear what the "it" is referring to.
B: "making it invisible" is misplaced and modifies "eye" changing the meaning.
A: is clear and grammatically correct.

In C "it" is referring to infrared radiation, which is incorrect.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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12 May 2010, 02:56
I chose A as well

(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye --> Correct
(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible "it" does not refer to a clear antecedent
(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it "it" does not refer to a clear antecedent
(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible "because" is awkwardly placed with "however"
(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible "it" does not refer to a clear antecedent
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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05 Mar 2011, 04:29
Want to know if there is any rule which establishes that "it" in C/D/E is referring to "wavelength"?
In D, I can though say it upto some extent, but not in C/E . It has shaken some of my basics. Can some1 explain this?

beckee529 wrote:
The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye.
(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye

RIGHT

(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible

Seems to suggest wavelength is too long and makes the eye invisible.

(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it

the eye does not register wavelength

(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible

WORDY. Again wavelength is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible suggests the wavelength is invisble

(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible

Wordy again. Also infrared radiation cannot make ITSELF invisible as the sentence seems to suggest.
I am looking for a good explanation for answer pick.

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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2013, 18:25

I don't agree with the notion that "it do not refer to a clear antecedent" or "it refers to wavelength"

Reason:In choice C, we already got a "its", so "it" and "its" must refer to the same subject---infrared radiation.

So, what is wrong with choice C?

IMO, "it" is redundant here.
the sentence"because its wavelength···is too long for the eye to register" is complete, and we do not need a "it" after register!
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2013, 23:12
nson wrote:

I don't agree with the notion that "it do not refer to a clear antecedent" or "it refers to wavelength"

Reason:In choice C, we already got a "its", so "it" and "its" must refer to the same subject---infrared radiation.

So, what is wrong with choice C?

IMO, "it" is redundant here.
the sentence"because its wavelength···is too long for the eye to register" is complete, and we do not need a "it" after register!

Hi nson.

You're correct. "it" is redundant in C.
For example:
WRONG: The test took me 1 hour to complete it <== "it" is redundant.
CORRECT: The test took me 1 hour to complete

Same question:
rivaling-the-pyramids-of-egypt-or-even-the-ancient-cities-of-30856.html?fl=similar

Hope it helps.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2013, 11:42
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nson wrote:
I don't agree with the notion that "it do not refer to a clear antecedent" or "it refers to wavelength"
Reason:In choice C, we already got a "its", so "it" and "its" must refer to the same subject---infrared radiation.
So, what is wrong with choice C?

In option C, “it” actually does not have a clear antecedent and therefore, option C has a pronoun ambiguity error.
Let’s look at option C:

Infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it.

Here is the sentence structure of Option C:
1. Infrared radiation, however, is invisible
2. because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it

A: Now, if we look at it, the beginning of the second clause has possessive pronoun “its” – this pronoun clearly refers to Infrared radiation since there is no other noun before this pronoun.

B: However, when we reach the end of the second clause and encounter “it”, we have two nouns to which “it” could refer to – “Infrared radiation” or the subject of the “because clause” i.e. wavelength. Now, both the nouns are valid contenders for the antecedent of “it”. Therefore, there is a pronoun ambiguity in the clause.

For this reason, option C is incorrect.

Does this help!

Chiranjeev
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2013, 04:32
Please explain how reference to it in choice D and E is wrong. IN D,E og says reference to it is not clear. can you highlight this.. is it in these sentences pointing wavelength or infrared (both) ?? how it in B is clear? Is the same error not in B ?
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2013, 21:35
Dont we need direct subject after semi colon and there by eliminating B D E? Can we see it like that ?

Can some one explain the usage of semicolon in gmat?
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04 Sep 2013, 07:15
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atalwar wrote:
Please explain how reference to it in choice D and E is wrong. IN D,E og says reference to it is not clear. can you highlight this.. is it in these sentences pointing wavelength or infrared (both) ?? how it in B is clear? Is the same error not in B ?

Let me write the entire sentence taking Option D into consideration.

The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible.

As you can see the pronoun “it” is ambiguous. It can refer to either “wavelength” or “infrared radiation”.

Even if you say that only wavelength can be long and so “it” properly refers to wavelength, then you can say that “thus invisible” is modifying “wavelength” in that case.

The original sentence intends to say that the “infrared radiation” is invisible to the eye because of some reasons. The original sentence doesn’t intend to say that “the wavelength is invisible”.
This is the error in Option D.

Now let us look at the entire sentence taking Option E into consideration.

The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible

Again, the pronoun “it” is ambiguous. (Making radiation invisible or Making wavelength invisible?)

Also the use of “that” is incorrect.
a. Trees which give oxygen are essential for life on earth.
b. Trees that give oxygen are essential for life on earth.

Sentence (a) tells us that trees are essential for life on earth and states a property of trees i.e. Trees give oxygen.
Sentence (b) tells us that only trees that give oxygen are essential for life on earth.
This is the meaning difference between “which” and “that”

The usage of “that” in Option E brings about a similar meaning change. It is talking about “a particular wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for eye to register”, whereas the original sentence intends to say that “all wavelengths of 0.1 millimeters are too long for eye to register.”

Hope you get the difference in the meanings.
For the reasons above stated, Option E is incorrect too.

Hope this helps!
Regards,
Krishna
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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01 May 2014, 05:57
I eliminated the options B,C,D and E based on meaning.

B) making it invisible --- what is it referring to

C) for the eye to register it --- Apart from it , this seems as if eye itself is registering.

D) for the eye to register --- Same as in C.

E) If we eliminate the modifier present between commas , we get the following sentence .
however thus making it invisible . --- Makes no sense .
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2014, 08:28
In option (D)
'Because' is used with 'however'. Is this correct?

In option (E)
'however' and 'thus' are used in the same sentence. Is this correct?

Thanks.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2014, 20:32
usage of "it" - C,D,E out
In B - Making is modifying ???
Hence A- crisp and clear.
Hope it helps:)
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31 Aug 2014, 10:59
In option (D)
'Because' is used with 'however'. Is this correct?

In option (E)
'however' and 'thus' are used in the same sentence. Is this correct?

Thanks.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2014, 18:51
"however" just indicates a contrast from the previous sentence. It is followed (or in some cases, preceded) by a complete complete sentence comprising a subject and a verb. You can remove it from the sentence and the sentence still stands.

The function of "because" is to provide a reason for some fact or event mentioned in the "same" sentence.

So there is no problem with using both "however" and "because" in the same sentence.

"Because" is a conjunction. So if you remove "because", the remaining portion of the sentence cannot stand on its own.

"Thus" introduces a logical outcome of an action (usually specified in the same sentence). So there is no problem with using "however" and "thus" together, either.

Options D and E are incorrect for other reasons.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2014, 10:48
egmat wrote:
atalwar wrote:
Please explain how reference to it in choice D and E is wrong. IN D,E og says reference to it is not clear. can you highlight this.. is it in these sentences pointing wavelength or infrared (both) ?? how it in B is clear? Is the same error not in B ?

Let me write the entire sentence taking Option D into consideration.

The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible.

As you can see the pronoun “it” is ambiguous. It can refer to either “wavelength” or “infrared radiation”.

Even if you say that only wavelength can be long and so “it” properly refers to wavelength, then you can say that “thus invisible” is modifying “wavelength” in that case.

The original sentence intends to say that the “infrared radiation” is invisible to the eye because of some reasons. The original sentence doesn’t intend to say that “the wavelength is invisible”.
This is the error in Option D.

Now let us look at the entire sentence taking Option E into consideration.

The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible

Again, the pronoun “it” is ambiguous. (Making radiation invisible or Making wavelength invisible?)

Also the use of “that” is incorrect.
a. Trees which give oxygen are essential for life on earth.
b. Trees that give oxygen are essential for life on earth.

Sentence (a) tells us that trees are essential for life on earth and states a property of trees i.e. Trees give oxygen.
Sentence (b) tells us that only trees that give oxygen are essential for life on earth.
This is the meaning difference between “which” and “that”

The usage of “that” in Option E brings about a similar meaning change. It is talking about “a particular wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for eye to register”, whereas the original sentence intends to say that “all wavelengths of 0.1 millimeters are too long for eye to register.”

Hope you get the difference in the meanings.
For the reasons above stated, Option E is incorrect too.

Hope this helps!
Regards,
Krishna

Hi Krishna,

Amazing explanation. I had rejected choice D on the basis of "it" and "thus" - somehow thought that "thus" didn't make the right sense here.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2015, 09:26
egmat wrote:
atalwar wrote:
Please explain how reference to it in choice D and E is wrong. IN D,E og says reference to it is not clear. can you highlight this.. is it in these sentences pointing wavelength or infrared (both) ?? how it in B is clear? Is the same error not in B ?

Let me write the entire sentence taking Option D into consideration.

The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible.

As you can see the pronoun “it” is ambiguous. It can refer to either “wavelength” or “infrared radiation”.

Even if you say that only wavelength can be long and so “it” properly refers to wavelength, then you can say that “thus invisible” is modifying “wavelength” in that case.

The original sentence intends to say that the “infrared radiation” is invisible to the eye because of some reasons. The original sentence doesn’t intend to say that “the wavelength is invisible”.
This is the error in Option D.

Now let us look at the entire sentence taking Option E into consideration.

The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible

Again, the pronoun “it” is ambiguous. (Making radiation invisible or Making wavelength invisible?)

Also the use of “that” is incorrect.
a. Trees which give oxygen are essential for life on earth.
b. Trees that give oxygen are essential for life on earth.

Sentence (a) tells us that trees are essential for life on earth and states a property of trees i.e. Trees give oxygen.
Sentence (b) tells us that only trees that give oxygen are essential for life on earth.
This is the meaning difference between “which” and “that”

The usage of “that” in Option E brings about a similar meaning change. It is talking about “a particular wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for eye to register”, whereas the original sentence intends to say that “all wavelengths of 0.1 millimeters are too long for eye to register.”

Hope you get the difference in the meanings.
For the reasons above stated, Option E is incorrect too.

Hope this helps!
Regards,
Krishna

Official Guide explanation says: "Using a restrictive clause suggests that not all wavelengths of 0.1 millimeters are too long for the eye to register."

OK. But in the example that you have written both clauses are indeed restrictive, as both are without commas. So if in the choice E we had "which is too long for the eye ..." instead of "that is too long for the eye ...", then this choice would not have this problem about meaning.

Or no, we essentially need a restrictive clause with commas to make this choice free of such a meaning error?!
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2015, 03:00
egmat wrote:
atalwar wrote:
Please explain how reference to it in choice D and E is wrong. IN D,E og says reference to it is not clear. can you highlight this.. is it in these sentences pointing wavelength or infrared (both) ?? how it in B is clear? Is the same error not in B ?

Let me write the entire sentence taking Option D into consideration.

The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible.

As you can see the pronoun “it” is ambiguous. It can refer to either “wavelength” or “infrared radiation”.

Even if you say that only wavelength can be long and so “it” properly refers to wavelength, then you can say that “thus invisible” is modifying “wavelength” in that case.

The original sentence intends to say that the “infrared radiation” is invisible to the eye because of some reasons. The original sentence doesn’t intend to say that “the wavelength is invisible”.
This is the error in Option D.

Now let us look at the entire sentence taking Option E into consideration.

The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible

Again, the pronoun “it” is ambiguous. (Making radiation invisible or Making wavelength invisible?)

Also the use of “that” is incorrect.
a. Trees which give oxygen are essential for life on earth.
b. Trees that give oxygen are essential for life on earth.

Sentence (a) tells us that trees are essential for life on earth and states a property of trees i.e. Trees give oxygen.
Sentence (b) tells us that only trees that give oxygen are essential for life on earth.
This is the meaning difference between “which” and “that”

The usage of “that” in Option E brings about a similar meaning change. It is talking about “a particular wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for eye to register”, whereas the original sentence intends to say that “all wavelengths of 0.1 millimeters are too long for eye to register.”

Hope you get the difference in the meanings.
For the reasons above stated, Option E is incorrect too.

Hope this helps!
Regards,
Krishna

Actually i think that e is ambiguous because it could refer to either the eye or the infrared radiation.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2015, 21:33
Hi E-GMAT,

in the reference to the noun modifier modify the far away noun, i would like to clear my understanding.

(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible

Although this option is incorrect for other reasons (Pronoun ambiguity).
In the OG13, one of explanation was "making it invisible" is modifying EYE. if i see the sentence structure here (the wavelength ...... is too long ..... by the eye) is a complete clause not comes under the category of noun phrase. So, "making" cant modify "wavelength". Does this makes sense.

Regards
Nitin Singh
Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense   [#permalink] 15 Nov 2015, 21:33

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