The president’s nominees to federal circuit courts have been judged conservative for their stands on hot-button issues. But a review of their financial disclosure forms and Senate questionnaires reveals that the nominees are more notable for their close ties to corporate and economic interests, especially the energy and mining industries. Some of them were paid lobbyists for those same interests. Further, the nominees with industry ties were overwhelmingly appointed to circuit courts regarded as traditional battlegrounds over litigation affecting these industries. Independent observers who follow the federal bench believe that the extensive corporate involvement among so many of the nominees is unprecedented.
In the argument above, the two portions in boldface pay which of the following roles?
1. The first is a generalization that the author aims to attack; the second is that attack.
2. The first is a pattern that the author acknowledges as true; the second is the author’s conclusion based on that acknowledgment.
3.The first is a phenomenon that the author accepts as true; the second is evidence in support of the author’s conclusion.
4. The first is the author’s position based on the evidence cited; the second is a pattern presented in support of that position.
5. The first is an exception to a rule introduced in the argument; the second provides the reasoning behind the exception.
B1. The first boldface is a pattern or a phenomenon (an extraordinary event) (A,D OUT). I do not believe that it is the authors conclusion since he/she is citing someone else's conclusion.
B2. Is an evidence hence (A,B,D, are out)
We are now left with C and E
IMO E since the last sentence says " ndependent observers who follow the federal bench believe that the extensive corporate involvement among so many of the nominees is unprecedented
Unprecedented could mean phenomenon or exception to the rule. However, the passage does not seems to imply whether the author thinks it is true or not.