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The refusal of some countries to extradite persons accused

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The refusal of some countries to extradite persons accused [#permalink] New post 23 Jul 2008, 12:11
The refusal of some countries to extradite persons accused or convicted of terrorist act has focused attention on the problems caused by the political offense exception to extradition. Extradition is the process by which one country returns an accused or convicted person found within its borders to another country for trial or punishment. Under the political offense exception, the requested state may, if it considers the crime to be a “political offense,” deny extradition to the requesting state.
Protection of political offenses is a recent addition to the ancient practice of extradition. It is the result of two fundamental changes that occurred as European monarchies were replaced by representative governments. First, these governments began to reject what had been a primary intent of extradition, to expedite the return of political offenders, and instead sought to protect dissidents fleeing despotic regimes. Second, countries began to contend that they had no legal or moral duty to extradite offenders without specific agreements creating such obligations. As extradition laws subsequently developed through international treaties, the political offense exception gradually became an accepted principle among Western nations.
There is no international consensus, however, as to what constitutes a political offense. For analytical purposes illegal political conduct has traditionally been divided into two categories. “Pure” political offenses are acts perpetrated directly against the government, such as treason and espionage. These crimes are generally recognized as nonextraditable, even if not expressly excluded from extradition by the applicable treaty. In contrast, common crimes, such as murder, assault, and robbery, are generally extraditable. However, there are some common crimes that are so inseparable from a political act that the entire offense is regarded as political. These crimes, which are called “relative” political offenses, are generally nonextraditable. Despite the widespread acceptance of these analytic constructs, the distinctions are more academic than meaningful. When it comes to real cases, there is no agreement about what transforms a common crime into a political offense and about whether terrorist acts fall within the protection of the exception. Most terrorists claim that their acts do fall under this protection.
Nations of the world must now balance the competing needs of political freedom and international public order. It is time to reexamine the political offense exception, as international terrorism eradicates the critical distinctions between political offenses and nonpolitical crimes. The only rational and attainable objective of the exception is to protect the requested person against unfair treatment by the requesting country. The international community needs to find an alternative to the political offense exception that would protect the rights of requested persons and yet not offer terrorists immunity from criminal liability.


12. The author would most likely agree that the political offense exception
(A) has, in some cases, been stretched beyond intended use
(B) has been used too infrequently to be evaluated
(C) has been a modestly useful weapon again terrorism
(D) has never met the objective for which it was originally established
(E) has been of more academic than practical value to political dissidents

13. Which one of the following, if true, would give the author most cause to reconsider her recommendation regarding the political offence exception (lines 62-66)?
(A) More nations started refusing to extradite persons accused or convicted of terrorist acts.
(B) More nations started extraditing persons accused or convicted of treason, espionage, and other similar crimes.
(C) The nations of the world sharply decreased their use of the political offense exception protect persons accused of each of the various types of “pure” political offenses.
(D) The nations of the world sharply decreased their use of the political offense exception to protect persons accused of each of the various types of “relative” political offenses.
(E) The nations of the world started to disagree over the analytical distinction between “pure” political offenses and “relative” political offenses.
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Re: RC: Extradition -- Interesting passage [#permalink] New post 23 Jul 2008, 13:50
IMO

12. Between A/E however I will choose E becuse the author says that "Despite the widespread acceptance of these analytic constructs, the distinctions are more academic than meaningful.

However, in support of A. The author says that "When it comes to real cases, there is no agreement about what transforms a common crime into a political offense and about [color=#BF0000]whether terrorist acts fall within the protection of the exception.Most terrorists claim that their acts do fall under this protection.[/color]

13.D The nations of the world sharply decreased their use of the political offense exception to protect persons accused of each of the various types of “relative” political offenses.

If the countries stopped stretching these two concepts to protect or extradite criminals (political or otherwise) then there will be no academic debate or discussion on which crime falls under what classification and crimes would be black or white.

What are the OA's
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Re: RC: Extradition -- Interesting passage [#permalink] New post 23 Jul 2008, 14:01
A,A
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Re: RC: Extradition -- Interesting passage [#permalink] New post 23 Jul 2008, 15:08
E, A
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Re: RC: Extradition -- Interesting passage [#permalink] New post 23 Jul 2008, 18:55
One more differing view :lol: .

12. A. This is inference. Terrorist take use of these laws, so in some cases protection is stretched.
13. C. When it comes to real cases, there is no agreement about what transforms a common crime into a political offense and about whether terrorist acts fall within the protection of the exception. Most terrorists claim that their acts do fall under this protection.
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Re: RC: Extradition -- Interesting passage [#permalink] New post 24 Jul 2008, 05:59
OA - A/D.

Thanks!
Re: RC: Extradition -- Interesting passage   [#permalink] 24 Jul 2008, 05:59
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The refusal of some countries to extradite persons accused

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