The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are

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The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2010, 00:45
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The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

A. which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell
B. which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it had fallen
C. which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling
D. with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling
E. with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA: C

Why using "after falling" but not "after they had fallen"? I thought using "falling" is wrong because this sentence is emphasizing the sequence of past events. It should be using "after they had fallen".

Can somebody explain the grammar rules? Thanks.
If you have any questions
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16 Jan 2010, 03:07
To answer your question, it can not be had fallen because the past perfect must be used to describe an action which occurs before an other action occurring in the past. Therefore you can not use the past perfect without the presence of an other past action described in simple past tense. So it cannot be the answer B because there is no simple past tense.

Hope, it's clear.

Jasonlu1981 wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

A. which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell
B. which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it had fallen
C. which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling
D. with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling
E. with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA: C

Why using "after falling" but not "after they had fallen"? I thought using "falling" is wrong because this sentence is emphasizing the sequence of past events. It should be using "after they had fallen".

Can somebody explain the grammar rules? Thanks.
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16 Jan 2010, 17:43
E and D are out for using "with"
A and B are out because both of them used 'it' singular where profits is plural

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Last edited by SudiptoGmat on 19 Jan 2010, 10:57, edited 1 time in total.
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18 Jan 2010, 02:54
Thanks for your help ludwigfraboulet! Very clearly understood.

ludwigfraboulet wrote:
To answer your question, it can not be had fallen because the past perfect must be used to describe an action which occurs before an other action occurring in the past. Therefore you can not use the past perfect without the presence of an other past action described in simple past tense. So it cannot be the answer B because there is no simple past tense.

Hope, it's clear.

Jasonlu1981 wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

A. which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell
B. which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it had fallen
C. which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling
D. with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling
E. with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA: C

Why using "after falling" but not "after they had fallen"? I thought using "falling" is wrong because this sentence is emphasizing the sequence of past events. It should be using "after they had fallen".

Can somebody explain the grammar rules? Thanks.
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19 Jan 2010, 07:45
SudiptoGmat wrote:
C and D are out for using with
A and B are out because both of them used 'it' singular where profits is plural

@SudiptoGmat: could u plz explain y the options c and d are out ..
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19 Jan 2010, 10:58
Sorry I have edited my original post. E and D are out for using "With"
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09 Feb 2010, 18:02
ludwigfraboulet is exactly right. And to add to what he has said we are using the present perfect tense in option (C).

C. which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling
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29 Jul 2010, 14:43
According to my source OA is D.
Could anybody clarify?
thanks.
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01 Sep 2010, 11:35
noboru wrote:
According to my source OA is D.
Could anybody clarify?
thanks.

Nobody is going to clarify between C and D?
thanks
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12 Sep 2011, 20:51
noboru wrote:
noboru wrote:
According to my source OA is D.
Could anybody clarify?
thanks.

Nobody is going to clarify between C and D?
thanks

The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

A. which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell
B. which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it had fallen
C. which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling
D. with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling
E. with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen

Here, "The results of the company's cost cutting measures" is the subject.
In "D", "with a 5 percent" relates to what The result....... .
No.
The author wanted to relate the modifier with the company's profit.
That's why "which" is more appropriate than "with".
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13 Sep 2011, 21:12
Use of prepositional phrase 'with....' after comma for this sentence is wrong. --> D, E out

'It' is unnecessary in A& B

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22 Sep 2011, 10:09
Here, after indicates sequence, co we don't need a verb. Falling modifier clause is okay.
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09 Oct 2011, 21:13
Guys,
i understand that whenever a "which" comes immediately after a comma then it ll be refereeing to the word immediately behind the comma.
But if actual answer is C, then are we not violating this rule ?
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2011, 00:37
No arjunbt we are indeed refering to profits only here.

A and C are wrong because of the presence of "it".
D and E are worng because "with" modifies the meaning of the sentence.
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29 Oct 2011, 00:31
Jasonlu1981 wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

A. which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell
B. which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it had fallen
C. which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling
D. with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling
E. with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA: C

Why using "after falling" but not "after they had fallen"? I thought using "falling" is wrong because this sentence is emphasizing the sequence of past events. It should be using "after they had fallen".

Can somebody explain the grammar rules? Thanks.

Answer is C. We need to have "which" because "which" accurately refers to the profits (issue being discussed here). Present perfect tense further clarifies the meaning.
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2013, 06:59
C is best
but I do not understand why "during the first 3 months of this years" can be used with "have done" . "did" must be used with a specific time in past.
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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26 Mar 2013, 00:41
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

Second clause is briefing about profits so "which" is appropriate.
Thus D and E are out.

Now subject given is plural so we cant use "it" for the same. Thus eliminate A and B

So C
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26 Mar 2013, 01:00
arjunbt wrote:
Guys,
i understand that whenever a "which" comes immediately after a comma then it ll be refereeing to the word immediately behind the comma.
But if actual answer is C, then are we not violating this rule ?

Hi, Here is the full answer for C:

The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling over the last two years.

I see that 'which' is referring to 'profits' which adheres to the rule you state. What do you think it refers to?

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Re: Verb Tense   [#permalink] 26 Mar 2013, 01:00
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