The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are

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The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2011, 00:17
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Question Stats:

64% (01:55) correct 36% (01:03) wrong based on 132 sessions

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The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell
(B) which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it had fallen
(C) which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling
(D) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling
(E) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen




Can someone please help to explain why falling is correct?
Thanks!
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by mikemcgarry on 19 Jan 2017, 16:15, edited 2 times in total.
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New post 11 May 2011, 09:01
fox123456 wrote:
The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell
(B) which had increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it had fallen
(C) which have increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling
(D) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling
(E) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after having fallen


OA is C

Can someone please help to explain why falling is correct?
Thanks!


Please remove the OA from the non Spoiler section of the OP. Thanks!

I ruled out D and E because of "with". - non essential modifies use ", which .. , "
A & B are incorrect because of "it " it is singular and referring to profits which is plural.

Leaves C correct.
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New post 11 May 2011, 22:54
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/sc- ... t8497.html

C uses have and falling.
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New post 13 May 2011, 02:36
Hi, Thanks for the link!
It really helps.
But I still have one more question.
What does "falling over the last two years" modify?
I think it modifies "Profits".
Can someone help to confirm it?
Thanks^^
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New post 14 Jan 2017, 12:07
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New post 14 Jan 2017, 21:33
With the correct tense usage, I got this answer correct. However, I am not able to understand the use of pronoun "its" here.
As far as I understand, "its profits" means "company's profits". But in the initial phase of the sentence, Company is nowhere mentioned. It only mentions Company's cost cutting measures.

Is this use of "its" correct??
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New post 14 Jan 2017, 22:47
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Note that pronouns in possessive forms can refer to possessive nouns.

In this sentence -
"The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits"
"its" can refer to "company's". However, we cannot use the pronoun "it" to refer to "company's".

Option A - Incorrect.
the usage of "it" is incorrect as it cannot refer to the possessive noun "company's".

Option B - Incorrect.
the usage of pronoun "it" is incorrect.
"which had increased during the first three months of the year ..." - the usage of past perfect is incorrect. We can either use the simple past or present perfect.

Option C - Correct Answer.
"which have increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling over the last two years."

both the things in bold refer to "profits".
Also, note the usage of present perfect - "have increased". this implies that the statement was made at the end of the three month period.
the usage of past tense "increased" implies that the statement was made After the end of the three month period.

Option D - Incorrect.
Note that prepositional phrases generally serve as adverbial modifiers.
In this case, "with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months ..." seems to describe How "the results of the company's cost cutting measures Are evident ..."
WHEREAS "a 5 percent increase" and "after falling" should clearly refer to "profits".

Hence, we need a noun-modifier such as "which".

Option E - Incorrect.
Same error as D.
Also, note that "after + having fallen" is redundant.

"having + past participle" already describes a prior action in a sequence of events.
For example -
Having watched the movie, I went to the restaurant.
Here, "watched" happened before "went".
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Re: The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2017, 07:39
RMD007 wrote:
With the correct tense usage, I got this answer correct. However, I am not able to understand the use of pronoun "its" here.
As far as I understand, "its profits" means "company's profits". But in the initial phase of the sentence, Company is nowhere mentioned. It only mentions Company's cost cutting measures.

Is this use of "its" correct??


The OA is correct and explanation provided by CrackVerbalGMAT appears sufficient. If there are any specific questions, please click again on the "Request Expert Reply" button and post your queries – closing this request.
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New post 19 Jan 2017, 07:53
fox123456 wrote:
The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell
(B) which had increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it had fallen
(C) which have increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling
(D) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling
(E) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after having fallen




Can someone please help to explain why falling is correct?
Thanks!

i can go to choice C as oa for this problem
but we have a problem in official answer.
in C, "falling" take the tense of main clause, which is "have increased. this mean "after they have fallen... over last two years". this is not logic.
in this case, subject should be present and full clause is " after the profits fell over last two years"

am I correct? is official answer wrong? sorry for these words. maybe i am wrong

pls, discuss this point
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New post 19 Jan 2017, 07:58
OA has a problem. "falling" is maybe incorrect because it take the tense of main clause, which is "have increased". pls, help explain. sorry for strong words.
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The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jan 2017, 16:35
victory47 wrote:
fox123456 wrote:
The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell
(B) which had increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it had fallen
(C) which have increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling
(D) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling
(E) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after having fallen




Can someone please help to explain why falling is correct?
Thanks!

i can go to choice C as oa for this problem
but we have a problem in official answer.
in C, "falling" take the tense of main clause, which is "have increased. this mean "after they have fallen... over last two years". this is not logic.
in this case, subject should be present and full clause is " after the profits fell over last two years"

am I correct? is official answer wrong? sorry for these words. maybe i am wrong

pls, discuss this point


Before discussing this point, please recollect that when words such as "after" and "before" are used, the usage past perfect to depict an event in past of another past event is not required.

After I finished my homework, I went out.... correct.
When I had finished my homework, I went out..... correct.
After I had finished my homework, I went out... redundant.
Now consider the following:
After finishing my homework, I went out.... correct.

In option C it may seem that the tense of the action "fall" should depict that the "falling" happened before the action "increase". However the use of the word "after" already makes it clear that the action "falling" happened before the action "increase". Therefore usage of tense is not required to depict the sequence.
The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are   [#permalink] 20 Jan 2017, 16:35
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