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The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the

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The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the [#permalink] New post 13 Mar 2013, 11:06
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The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the early eleventh century with the Danish conquest of the English Kingdom,which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat,unsuccessfully,later in the same century.

(A)which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat,unsuccessfully,later in the same century.
(B)which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat later that same century,but not successfully
(C)an achievement that other Scandinavian kings attempted later in the century to repeat,but were not successful at it
(D)an achievement attempted later in the century by other Scandinavian kings that was not successful
(E)an achievement that other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat later in the century,but without success.

Need explanation
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Re: The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated [#permalink] New post 13 Mar 2013, 11:44
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mun23 wrote:
The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the early eleventh century with the Danish conquest of the English Kingdom,which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat,unsuccessfully,later in the same century.

(A)which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat,unsuccessfully,later in the same century.
(B)which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat later that same century,but not successfully
(C)an achievement that other Scandinavian kings attempted later in the century to repeat,but were not successful at it
(D)an achievement attempted later in the century by other Scandinavian kings that was not successful
(E)an achievement that other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat later in the century,but without success.

Need explanation


Hi mun,


First of all there is a split in this question between "which.." and "an achievement". "Which" is a relative pronoun that usually refers a noun closest or not so far away. The use of which is ambiguous as it may refer to either "conquest" or "assault". Whereas, the underlined part of the sentence which starts with "an achievement" is a noun phrase or an absolute phrase. This phrase describes the action discussed in the first part of the sentence. This structure expresses the meaning more clearly. Usually on GMAT the choices with absolute phrases are correct.


(A)which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat,unsuccessfully,later in the same century.

Incorrect - explained above.

(B)which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat later that same century,but not successfully

Incorrect - explained above.

(C)an achievement that other Scandinavian kings attempted later in the century to repeat,but were not successful at it

The sentence is not concise and the meaning is difficult to interpret because of the placement of "to repeat" far from "attempted". The use "attempted to repeat" is better.

(D)an achievement attempted later in the century by other Scandinavian kings that was not successful

This choice incorrectly says that the achievement was unsuccessful; but, the logical and intended meaning is that the attempt was not successful.

(E)an achievement that other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat later in the century,but without success.

Correct. This choice correctly uses the absolute phrase to express the action in the first part of the sentence. "but without success" clearly means that the attempt was was without success and the sentence is now clear and concise.

Hope this helps,

Vercules
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Re: The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated [#permalink] New post 13 Mar 2013, 11:25
mun23 wrote:
The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the early eleventh century with the Danish conquest of the English Kingdom,which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat,unsuccessfully,later in the same century.

(A)which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat,unsuccessfully,later in the same century.
(B)which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat later that same century,but not successfully
(C)an achievement that other Scandinavian kings attempted later in the century to repeat,but were not successful at it
(D)an achievement attempted later in the century by other Scandinavian kings that was not successful
(E)an achievement that other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat later in the century,but without success.

Need explanation


Choice A and B - incorrect usage of "which" modifying English Kingdom
Choice C - reference of "it" is not clear. (attempted)
Choice D - reference of "that" is not clear. (attempted)
Choice E - correct contrast with conjunction "but"

Hope this helps
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Re: The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated [#permalink] New post 15 Mar 2013, 06:07
Vercules wrote:
mun23 wrote:
The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the early eleventh century with the Danish conquest of the English Kingdom,which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat,unsuccessfully,later in the same century.

(A)which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat,unsuccessfully,later in the same century.
(B)which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat later that same century,but not successfully
(C)an achievement that other Scandinavian kings attempted later in the century to repeat,but were not successful at it
(D)an achievement attempted later in the century by other Scandinavian kings that was not successful
(E)an achievement that other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat later in the century,but without success.

Need explanation


Hi mun,


First of all there is a split in this question between "which.." and "an achievement". "Which" is a relative pronoun that usually refers a noun closest or not so far away. The use of which is ambiguous as it may refer to either "conquest" or "assault". Whereas, the underlined part of the sentence which starts with "an achievement" is a noun phrase or an absolute phrase. This phrase describes the action discussed in the first part of the sentence. This structure expresses the meaning more clearly. Usually on GMAT the choices with absolute phrases are correct.

(A)which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat,unsuccessfully,later in the same century.

Incorrect - explained above.

(B)which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat later that same century,but not successfully

Incorrect - explained above.

(C)an achievement that other Scandinavian kings attempted later in the century to repeat,but were not successful at it

The sentence is not concise and the meaning is difficult to interpret because of the placement of "to repeat" far from "attempted". The use "attempted to repeat" is better.

(D)an achievement attempted later in the century by other Scandinavian kings that was not successful

This choice incorrectly says that the achievement was unsuccessful; but, the logical and intended meaning is that the attempt was not successful.

(E)an achievement that other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat later in the century,but without success.

Correct. This choice correctly uses the absolute phrase to express the action in the first part of the sentence. "but without success" clearly means that the attempt was was without success and the sentence is now clear and concise.

Hope this helps,

Vercules

In option (A)which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat,unsuccessfully,later in the same century.
use of unsuccessfully,later in the same century is right?
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Re: The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the [#permalink] New post 25 Mar 2013, 23:20
I think both "which" and "an achievement" are correct.

A is wrong because there is no "but"
B is wrong for "that same century". it should be "the same century"
C is wrong for "it"
D is wrong because "that was" refers to "king"

this is hard one because it has many minor errors.
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Re: The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated [#permalink] New post 26 Mar 2013, 01:04
mun23 wrote:
In option (A)which other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat,unsuccessfully,later in the same century.
use of unsuccessfully,later in the same century is right?


Hi Mun,

Yes this is fine, it simply modifies the clause and does so in a correct and concise fashion...
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Re: The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the [#permalink] New post 16 May 2014, 18:44
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Re: The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the [#permalink] New post 23 May 2014, 11:14
A question about D: does "that" need to appear next to the noun "attempt" if it were constructed this way? What is "that" referring to in D? Does this have to do with certain "mission critical" modifiers? Does it refer to king or to achievement and what is the role of the phrase in between? Thank you!
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Re: The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the [#permalink] New post 23 May 2014, 12:13
smalluser wrote:
A question about D: does "that" need to appear next to the noun "attempt" if it were constructed this way? What is "that" referring to in D? Does this have to do with certain "mission critical" modifiers? Does it refer to king or to achievement and what is the role of the phrase in between? Thank you!





Hi smalluser,

Since ‘that’ can logically refer to things only not people, it cannot refer to ‘Scandinavian kings’. Hence, ‘that’ in option D is referring to ‘an achievement’.
Also, ‘attempted’ is not a noun in this sentence so ‘that’ cannot refer to it.

OPTION D

• The Scandinavian assault on Western Europe culminated in the early eleventh century with the Danish conquest of the English Kingdom,
o an achievement attempted later in the century by other Scandinavian kings
• that was not successful.

Here, ‘an achievement’ is referring to the action of the assault culminating with the conquest. The phrase ‘attempted later in the century by other Scandinavian kings’ is modifying ‘an achievement’. This phrase tells more about the noun ‘an achievement’.

This is illogical since one cannot attempt an achievement, since the achievement is already over. He can attempt to repeat the achievement.

Also, the clause ‘that was not successful’ is incorrectly modifying ‘an achievement’. If the achievement was not successful, then it’s not an achievement.


P.S.: ‘that’ does not need to appear right next to a noun to modify it.


Hope this helps! :)
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Re: The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the [#permalink] New post 23 May 2014, 12:16
This does help, thank you! Just to be clear, "that" is not like "which" which (haha) needs to modify the noun directly before it? All the examples I can think of when "that" is a noun modifier act this way: "the red house that is on top of the hill, the movie that we watched, etc." I know you said "that" does not have to modify the noun next to it, so I'm wondering if you have any clear examples where this is the case? Thank you so much!
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Re: The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the [#permalink] New post 23 May 2014, 12:18
I do know of the example: "the color of the house is a deeper red than that of the neighbor's" but i feel "that" is not acting as a modifier, as it does in the sentence originally mentioned.
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Re: The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the [#permalink] New post 23 May 2014, 19:57
smalluser wrote:
This does help, thank you! Just to be clear, "that" is not like "which" which (haha) needs to modify the noun directly before it? All the examples I can think of when "that" is a noun modifier act this way: "the red house that is on top of the hill, the movie that we watched, etc." I know you said "that" does not have to modify the noun next to it, so I'm wondering if you have any clear examples where this is the case? Thank you so much!





Hi smalluser,

You are welcome.

Now coming to your question, I think ‘which’ can also modify a slightly far away noun. :P

You can refer to the following article.


noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html


I have also found an official example in which ‘that’ modifies a slightly far away noun.

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE

• The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

Here, the second ‘that’ refers to ‘emotional reactions’.


Hope this helps! :)
Manyu
Re: The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the   [#permalink] 23 May 2014, 19:57
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