I agree with daagh that the use of "and" here necessitates a verb in the first part of the sentence. Notice that there is no verb at all in the non-underlined portion, so you need a verb in the underlined portion. But the underlined portion says "A
and thus B
need to be parallel, and they must both contain verbs. As daagh says, that knocks off B, C, and D.
I also agree that the meaning shifts in E, but I have a different
(grammatical) reason for losing E. There is a verb split between A and E-- "provided" versus "has provided." What might help us distinguish which of these options is incorrect? Both sentences use the phrase "last year
," but you cannot use the present perfect tense (has/have + past participle) if you name the specific point in the past when that action happened.
Last year, I ate 10 pizzas. CORRECT
Last year, I have eaten 10 pizzas. INCORRECT
In 1998, I owned twenty pairs of shoes. CORRECT
In 1998, I have owned twenty pairs of shoes. INCORRECT
One thing to be careful of when applying this rule is the word "since
"--"since 1998" means...in the period of time between 1998 and leading up to the present," so you *can* use a specific date with "since" and the present perfect.
Since 1998, I have been to Paris four times. CORRECT
In 1998, I went to Paris four times. CORRECT
(but different meaning)
In 1988, I have gone to Paris four times. INCORRECT
E incorrectly uses the present perfect, so A is our answer.
JP Park | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | Los Angeles
Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Reviews