The steel industry has changed radically over the last two : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# The steel industry has changed radically over the last two

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18 Nov 2012, 07:31
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Difficulty:

55% (hard)

Question Stats:

53% (01:47) correct 47% (01:04) wrong based on 108 sessions

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The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

OA after some discussion.

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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by reto on 19 Oct 2015, 12:09, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2012, 07:48
Vips0000 wrote:
Jp27 wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

OA after some discussion.

Cheers

Ans B it is!

I was wondering why "that" is absolutely required in B?

Cheers
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2012, 08:30
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This is purely a test of sentence structure. The basic point is that there can be only one verb for a clause.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel --- Two verbs for the sub-clause--- 1. Conducted. 2. Downsized. So wrong

B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that -------
after the introduction of the connector' that', the verb ‘conducted’ belongs to the modifier clause that modifies the sub-clause. The correct choice.

C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that ---When we change the sub clause to a prepositional phrase converting the entire sentence into a simple clause, then we cannot have a verb for the modifier phrase. The verb downsized should be changed to having downsized or in some cases having shut down altogether.

D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that--- While is an inappropriate contrast marker here as there is no contrast involved. The second part is simply affirming the first part. If it wants to mean simultaneous happening, then as is the apt conjunction

E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel --- a clear run-on
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2012, 09:32
daagh wrote:
This is purely a test of sentence structure. The basic point is that there can be only one verb for a clause.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel --- Two verbs for the sub-clause--- 1. Conducted. 2. Downsized. So wrong

B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that -------
after the introduction of the connector' that', the verb ‘conducted’ belongs to the modifier clause that modifies the sub-clause. The correct choice.

C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that ---When we change the sub clause to a prepositional phrase converting the entire sentence into a simple clause, then we cannot have a verb for the modifier phrase. The verb downsized should be changed to having downsized or in some cases having shut down altogether.

D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that--- While is an inappropriate contrast marker here as there is no contrast involved. The second part is simply affirming the first part. If it wants to mean simultaneous happening, then as is the apt conjunction

E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel --- a clear run-on

hey daagh ->

Correct me if Im wrong.

Without "that" in A "conducted operations from mining ..... blah" modifies Bethlehem Steel but we need to modify companies, hence A is wrong.
Are there any other reasons apart from this?

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2012, 09:35
Oh yeah we have 2 verbs for the with any junctions for Bethlehem Steel, as you have quoted.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2014, 12:57
I think the trick here is to recognize the correct split A/B with the use of "as".

"As" here works as an introductor of a subordinate clause. Other words that could also work here are "because" or "since".

Meaning & Structure of the sentence
- Main Clause: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades.
- Subordinate Clause 1: this has happened because large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel have downsized or even shut down altogether.
- Subordinate Clause 2 that modifies Sub Cl 1: By the way, companies such as Bethlehem Steel have once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other.

In few words: The steel industry has changed AS companies such as BS have downsized or even shut down altogether.

Between A and B you need the "that" connector to state that Subordinate Clause 2 modifies Subordinate Clause 1.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2016, 22:16
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two   [#permalink] 27 Feb 2016, 22:16
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