The steel industry has changed radically over the last two : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# The steel industry has changed radically over the last two

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28 Aug 2010, 15:30
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The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2013, 02:34
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Hi,

The key word as you have noticed is 'as', this is a close synonym for 'because'.

As is correct here because we are looking to link a statement

With an explanation for that statement (the rest of the question).

Neither 'with' nor 'while' are appropriate here. I could go into length as to their usage, but this sort of general question is better served via google.

All the best,

James
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2013, 21:28
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The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

Here the usage of that is necessary. Let us consider choice A to understand this better. Choice A has three clauses.

Clauses:
2. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other
3.have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Here, integrated companies is the subject and "conducted" as well "have downsized" are the verbs. However, if you observe closely, you would see that there is no subject for "have greatly downsized". To assign it a subject we need to ensure that the first part of the sentence should be connected by "that".

Hope this helps!

targetgmatchotu wrote:
Hi all/experts,

I know the OA is (B).Not convinced ,though, by the use of that and why it is necessary in this context.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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13 May 2013, 22:31
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anilisanil wrote:
I still did not understand what is wrong with option C.

Is it that with requires a -ing form?

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

"With" does not require an ing form.

"with" is wrong compared to "as" because with cannot introduce a sentence here.
"with large, integrated companies (...) once conducted" is wrong
"as large, integrated companies (...) once conducted" is correct

Hope it's clear, let me know
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2013, 07:01
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Quote:
"X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

X once conducted Y from A to B HAVE VER-ed,

So HAVE VERB-ed doesn't take X as SUBJECT ????

"X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

This clause per se is ungrammatical because there are two actions here that are not properly conjugated. So this is a run-on.

1. "X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other
2. have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Now you can amend the error in two ways. The first is the way the text does. i.e. - by introducing a relative pronoun such as that or which at the right juncture, say just after the subject. The construction becomes a complex sentence involving a sub-clause and a main clause with the two given verbs smugly fitting in their own subjects
The other way is to convert it into a compound sentence with the introduction of an appropriate co-ordinate conjunction such as and, but etc;
1. The amended sentence will read as: "X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other, but have/ has greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Now you may see that the second verb have /has downsized can take X as the subject and only for the sake of brevity, it is elliptical.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2015, 06:12
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‘That’ has several uses, the main ones being as a pronoun, as a relative pronoun an adjective or as a subordinate conjunction.

As a pronoun:
When used as a pronoun, ‘that’ is used singular items and those is used for plurals. Eg:
He saw a movie that was produced in Bollywood. Movie is singular hence ‘that’
He sees a lot of movies especially those made in Kerala. Movies is plural hence ‘those’

As a relative pronoun.
But ‘that’ can also stand for plurals as a relative pronoun: Eg: He sees a lot of movies that are made in Chennai. The relative pronoun ‘that’ stands for the plural 'movies' and is acceptable. But because ‘those’ cannot be used as a relative pronoun, even in plural cases only ‘that’ is used as a relative pronoun.

As subordinate conjunction:
‘That’ can also act as a subordinate conjunction to introduce a relative clause, especially in reported speeches. Eg: Many find that IAS is a tough exam. Here ‘that’ introduces the subordinate clause ‘that IAS is a tough exam’. As conjunction, ‘that’ is not subject singular - plural rules.

I think if you look into the structure and meaning of lot of sentences that use ‘that’, then things will clear up. Certain usages are decided more by contexts than by thumb rules.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2010, 23:14
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Hi,
The sentence needs "that" in order to correctly refer to the primary subject of the sentence large, integrated
companies. Otherwise the subject becomes "Bethlehem Steel", which is wrong. We are left with options B , C & D. C&D are wrong because of the highlighted portions.

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.

B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2014, 07:07
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My 2 cents.

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Intended meaning:
1:The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades. [Clause-1]
2:How/Why did this happen? [Clause-2 begins]
Because large Integrated companies
---such as Bethlehem Steel
conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other [....]
have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.
Two verbs r not connected correctly.
Possible ways to fix it:
add appropriate conjunction or move one of the two verb into a clause.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

B Vs C:
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

We need to introduce the reason, so D and E doesn't fit.
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2015, 00:22
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rajatgugnani wrote:
Can you please explain in detail what is wrong with 'with' in choice C.

Hi Rajat, as suggested in one of the posts above, with cannot connect two clauses. For example, following would be incorrect:

The world cup will be interesting to watch, with 14 teams are vying for the coveted title of the world champion.

with is trying to connect two independent clauses:
i) The world cup will be interesting to watch
ii) 14 teams are vying for the coveted title of the world champion.

Better way would be:

The world cup will be interesting to watch, as 14 teams are vying for the coveted title of the world champion.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2015, 03:46
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I am afraid you have missed out on the parsing of the sentence. ‘Large, integrated’ are co-ordinate adjectives that modify the noun ‘companies’. Since they both modify the same noun, rules allow their separation by a comma rather than being joined by the conjunction ‘and’. The comma there is not the comma that sets off inessential elements.

On the other hand, the phrase ‘, such as Bethlehem Steel,’ is a modifier that modifies large integrated companies as an example. As you know, examples are not critical mission carriers. So if you want to drop something, then you must drop the phrase ‘, such as Bethlehem Steel,’ and read further on.
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
B. (revised) as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

You can see B makes sense now.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2015, 07:14
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Further to what I said in my previous reply, I am attaching a file that gives a list of GMAT examples in which 'that' is used as a relative pronoun and as a subordinate conjunction. Search for these examples in the forum and look for the correct usage of 'that' from the OAs.
Attachments

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2016, 12:08
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For those still confused between B (OA) and C, it comes down to the meaning of the words:

conjunction: as
1. used to indicate that something happens during the time when something is taking place.
"Frank watched him as he ambled through the crowd"

preposition: with

1. accompanied by (another person or thing).
"a nice steak with a bottle of red wine"

2. possessing (something) as a feature or accompaniment.
"a flower-sprigged blouse with a white collar"
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2012, 07:57
Still not convinced over the answer. What's wrong with C? Has the change in meaning is the cause behind its wrongness?
Verbal experts, need help.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2013, 19:10
Hi all/experts,

I know the OA is (B).Not convinced ,though, by the use of that and why it is necessary in this context.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2013, 06:49
Kris01 wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

Here the usage of that is necessary. Let us consider choice A to understand this better. Choice A has three clauses.

Clauses:
2. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other
3.have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Here, integrated companies is the subject and "conducted" as well "have downsized" are the verbs. However, if you observe closely, you would see that there is no subject for "have greatly downsized". To assign it a subject we need to ensure that the first part of the sentence should be connected by "that".

Hope this helps!

targetgmatchotu wrote:
Hi all/experts,

I know the OA is (B).Not convinced ,though, by the use of that and why it is necessary in this context.

Thanks a lot for the explanation.

Just for the confirmation that I understood your point , please advice if my interpretation per below is fine.

"X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other [color=#005e20]have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.[/color]

X once conducted Y from A to B HAVE VER-ed ,

So HAVE VERB-ed doesn't take X as SUBJECT ????

Rgds
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2013, 13:18
Yes, you got it right.

Quote:
Thanks a lot for the explanation.

Just for the confirmation that I understood your point , please advice if my interpretation per below is fine.

"X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other [color=#005e20]have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.[/color]

X once conducted Y from A to B HAVE VER-ed ,

So HAVE VERB-ed doesn't take X as SUBJECT ????

Rgds
Thanks
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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13 May 2013, 22:25
I still did not understand what is wrong with option C.

Is it that with requires a -ing form?

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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13 May 2013, 22:37
Zarrolou wrote:
anilisanil wrote:
I still did not understand what is wrong with option C.

Is it that with requires a -ing form?

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

"With" does not require an ing form.

"with" is wrong compared to "as" because with cannot introduce a sentence here.
"with large, integrated companies (...) once conducted" is wrong
"as large, integrated companies (...) once conducted" is correct

Hope it's clear, let me know

With cannot introduce a sentence in this case or in general?

What is wrong with this sentence: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, with large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other greatly downsizing, or in some cases
shutting down altogether.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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14 May 2013, 02:44
anilisanil wrote:
With cannot introduce a sentence in this case or in general?

What is wrong with this sentence: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, with large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other greatly downsizing, or in some cases
shutting down altogether.

In this case we cannot use "with".

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, with large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other greatly downsizing, or in some cases shutting down altogether.

You cannot use "with" as I explained above.
"mining " is parallel to "shipping " because they refer to the same concept : the once conducted operations from ... to.
"Downsize" refer to the companies and must be parallel to "Shut", but you cannot use an ING form just because the preciding verbs use it.
Those verbs express an action that started in the past and continues in the present => Present Perfect

Let me know if you have doubts
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2013, 12:25
iDisappear wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

For B to be correct, shouldn't we have comma after "shipping at the other".. ? if comma is not necessary here then it should also not come after " Bethlehem Steel". correct me if i m wrong
Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two   [#permalink] 17 Jun 2013, 12:25

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