The steel industry has changed radically over the last two : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# The steel industry has changed radically over the last two

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28 Aug 2010, 15:30
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The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2010, 23:14
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Hi,
The sentence needs "that" in order to correctly refer to the primary subject of the sentence large, integrated
companies. Otherwise the subject becomes "Bethlehem Steel", which is wrong. We are left with options B , C & D. C&D are wrong because of the highlighted portions.

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.

B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2012, 07:57
Still not convinced over the answer. What's wrong with C? Has the change in meaning is the cause behind its wrongness?
Verbal experts, need help.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2013, 19:10
Hi all/experts,

I know the OA is (B).Not convinced ,though, by the use of that and why it is necessary in this context.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2013, 21:28
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The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

Here the usage of that is necessary. Let us consider choice A to understand this better. Choice A has three clauses.

Clauses:
2. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other
3.have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Here, integrated companies is the subject and "conducted" as well "have downsized" are the verbs. However, if you observe closely, you would see that there is no subject for "have greatly downsized". To assign it a subject we need to ensure that the first part of the sentence should be connected by "that".

Hope this helps!

targetgmatchotu wrote:
Hi all/experts,

I know the OA is (B).Not convinced ,though, by the use of that and why it is necessary in this context.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2013, 06:49
Kris01 wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

Here the usage of that is necessary. Let us consider choice A to understand this better. Choice A has three clauses.

Clauses:
2. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other
3.have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Here, integrated companies is the subject and "conducted" as well "have downsized" are the verbs. However, if you observe closely, you would see that there is no subject for "have greatly downsized". To assign it a subject we need to ensure that the first part of the sentence should be connected by "that".

Hope this helps!

targetgmatchotu wrote:
Hi all/experts,

I know the OA is (B).Not convinced ,though, by the use of that and why it is necessary in this context.

Thanks a lot for the explanation.

Just for the confirmation that I understood your point , please advice if my interpretation per below is fine.

"X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other [color=#005e20]have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.[/color]

X once conducted Y from A to B HAVE VER-ed ,

So HAVE VERB-ed doesn't take X as SUBJECT ????

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2013, 13:18
Yes, you got it right.

Quote:
Thanks a lot for the explanation.

Just for the confirmation that I understood your point , please advice if my interpretation per below is fine.

"X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other [color=#005e20]have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.[/color]

X once conducted Y from A to B HAVE VER-ed ,

So HAVE VERB-ed doesn't take X as SUBJECT ????

Rgds
Thanks
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2013, 07:01
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Quote:
"X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

X once conducted Y from A to B HAVE VER-ed,

So HAVE VERB-ed doesn't take X as SUBJECT ????

"X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

This clause per se is ungrammatical because there are two actions here that are not properly conjugated. So this is a run-on.

1. "X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other
2. have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Now you can amend the error in two ways. The first is the way the text does. i.e. - by introducing a relative pronoun such as that or which at the right juncture, say just after the subject. The construction becomes a complex sentence involving a sub-clause and a main clause with the two given verbs smugly fitting in their own subjects
The other way is to convert it into a compound sentence with the introduction of an appropriate co-ordinate conjunction such as and, but etc;
1. The amended sentence will read as: "X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other, but have/ has greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Now you may see that the second verb have /has downsized can take X as the subject and only for the sake of brevity, it is elliptical.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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13 May 2013, 22:25
I still did not understand what is wrong with option C.

Is it that with requires a -ing form?

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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13 May 2013, 22:31
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anilisanil wrote:
I still did not understand what is wrong with option C.

Is it that with requires a -ing form?

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

"With" does not require an ing form.

"with" is wrong compared to "as" because with cannot introduce a sentence here.
"with large, integrated companies (...) once conducted" is wrong
"as large, integrated companies (...) once conducted" is correct

Hope it's clear, let me know
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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13 May 2013, 22:37
Zarrolou wrote:
anilisanil wrote:
I still did not understand what is wrong with option C.

Is it that with requires a -ing form?

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

"With" does not require an ing form.

"with" is wrong compared to "as" because with cannot introduce a sentence here.
"with large, integrated companies (...) once conducted" is wrong
"as large, integrated companies (...) once conducted" is correct

Hope it's clear, let me know

With cannot introduce a sentence in this case or in general?

What is wrong with this sentence: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, with large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other greatly downsizing, or in some cases
shutting down altogether.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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14 May 2013, 02:44
anilisanil wrote:
With cannot introduce a sentence in this case or in general?

What is wrong with this sentence: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, with large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other greatly downsizing, or in some cases
shutting down altogether.

In this case we cannot use "with".

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, with large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other greatly downsizing, or in some cases shutting down altogether.

You cannot use "with" as I explained above.
"mining " is parallel to "shipping " because they refer to the same concept : the once conducted operations from ... to.
"Downsize" refer to the companies and must be parallel to "Shut", but you cannot use an ING form just because the preciding verbs use it.
Those verbs express an action that started in the past and continues in the present => Present Perfect

Let me know if you have doubts
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2013, 12:25
iDisappear wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

For B to be correct, shouldn't we have comma after "shipping at the other".. ? if comma is not necessary here then it should also not come after " Bethlehem Steel". correct me if i m wrong
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2013, 01:41
I still dont understand whats wrong with C and D.
Can anyone explain. And is there any specific rules for the usage of as, with and while.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2013, 02:34
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Hi,

The key word as you have noticed is 'as', this is a close synonym for 'because'.

As is correct here because we are looking to link a statement

With an explanation for that statement (the rest of the question).

Neither 'with' nor 'while' are appropriate here. I could go into length as to their usage, but this sort of general question is better served via google.

All the best,

James
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2013, 08:54
plumber250 wrote:
Hi,

The key word as you have noticed is 'as', this is a close synonym for 'because'.

As is correct here because we are looking to link a statement

With an explanation for that statement (the rest of the question).

Neither 'with' nor 'while' are appropriate here. I could go into length as to their usage, but this sort of general question is better served via google.

All the best,

James

But James, there can be two aspects to view this SC question:

a) 'How the steel industry has changed?'-'Option 'c' replies to this answer with the help of an prepositional modifier.
b) 'Why the industry has changed?'- Option 'b' replies to this answer with the help of 'as...' (suboordinate clause)

My doubt is: How to identify what is the question's intent? To answer question 'How..' or 'Why..'?

Regards,
Heman2727
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2014, 01:40
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2014, 12:31
iDisappear wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

Breaking the first sentence into clauses-

-as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether

The two verbs are not properly joined hence incorrect

Option B

Clause Break-up-

2) as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel,

3)that once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other

Cont 2 - have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether

Q -Is this break-up correct?

-Why is the usage of "with" incorrect here.

-When should we use "with modifier"
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2014, 01:33
heman2727 wrote:
plumber250 wrote:
Hi,

The key word as you have noticed is 'as', this is a close synonym for 'because'.

As is correct here because we are looking to link a statement

With an explanation for that statement (the rest of the question).

Neither 'with' nor 'while' are appropriate here. I could go into length as to their usage, but this sort of general question is better served via google.

All the best,

James

But James, there can be two aspects to view this SC question:

a) 'How the steel industry has changed?'-'Option 'c' replies to this answer with the help of an prepositional modifier.
b) 'Why the industry has changed?'- Option 'b' replies to this answer with the help of 'as...' (suboordinate clause)

My doubt is: How to identify what is the question's intent? To answer question 'How..' or 'Why..'?

Regards,
Heman2727

I also have the same question. Would be grateful if someone can provide detailed answer!
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2014, 07:07
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My 2 cents.

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Intended meaning:
1:The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades. [Clause-1]
2:How/Why did this happen? [Clause-2 begins]
Because large Integrated companies
---such as Bethlehem Steel
conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other [....]
have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.
Two verbs r not connected correctly.
Possible ways to fix it:
add appropriate conjunction or move one of the two verb into a clause.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

B Vs C:
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

We need to introduce the reason, so D and E doesn't fit.
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two   [#permalink] 17 Sep 2014, 07:07

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