Find all School-related info fast with the new School-Specific MBA Forum

It is currently 05 May 2015, 06:24

Expecting Soon:

Wharton Round 3 Decisions.   |   Join Chat Room for Live Updates


Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

The term

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:
1 KUDOS received
Director
Director
avatar
Joined: 29 Oct 2004
Posts: 865
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 63 [1] , given: 0

The term [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2005, 18:58
1
This post received
KUDOS
NEW PROJECT!: Back to basic => Give your explanation- Get Kudos Point for best explanation

OG Passage
The term "episodic memory" was
introduced by Tulving to refer to what he
considered a uniquely human capacity-
Line the ability to recollect specific past events,
(5) to travel back into the past in one's own
mind-as distinct from the capacity simply
to use information acquired through past
experiences. Subsequently, Clayton et al.
developed criteria to test for episodic
(10) memory in animals. According to these
criteria, episodic memories are not of
individual bits of information; they involve
multiple components of a single event
"bound" together. Clayton sought to
(15) examine evidence of scrub jays' accurate
memory of "what," "where," and "when"
information and their binding of this infor-
mation. In the wild, these birds store food
for retrieval later during periods of food
(20) scarcity. Clayton's experiment required
jays to remember the type, location, and
freshness of stored food based on a unique
learning event. Crickets were stored in one
location and peanuts in another. Jays
(25) prefer crickets, but crickets degrade
more quickly. Clayton's birds switched
their preference from crickets to peanuts
once the food had been stored for a certain
length of time, showing that they retain
(30) information about the what, the where,
and the when. Such experiments cannot,
however, reveal whether the birds were
reexperiencing the past when retrieving the
information. Clayton acknowledged this by
using the term "episodic-like" memory.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A.explain how the findings of a particular experiment have been interpreted and offer an alternative interpretation
B.describe a particular experiment and point out one of its limitations
C.present similarities between human memory and animal memory
D.point out a flaw in the argument that a certain capacity is uniquely human
E.account for the unexpected behavior of animal subjects in a particular experiment
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B


2. According to the passage, Clayton's experiment depended on the fact that scrub jays
A.recall "when" and "where" information more distinctly than "what" information
B.are not able to retain information about a single past event for an indefinitely long period of time
C.choose peanuts over crickets when the crickets have been stored for a long period of time
D.choose crickets over peanuts whenever both are available
E.prefer peanuts that have been stored for a short period to crickets that have been stored for a short period
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C

3. The passage suggests that Clayton's experiment demonstrated scrub jays' ability to
A.choose different storage places for different kinds of food to minimize the rate at which a food will degrade
B.unlearn a behavior they use in the wild in order to adapt to laboratory conditions
C.bind together information about different aspects of a single past event
D.reexperience a past event in memory and act accordingly
E.distinguish one learning event from a subsequent learning event
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C

4. It can be inferred from the passage that both Tulving and Clayton would agree with which of the following statements?
A.Animals' abilities to use information about a specific past event are not conclusive evidence of episodic memory.
B.Animals do not share humans' abilities to reexperience the past through memory.
C.The accuracy of animals' memories is difficult to determine through direct experimentation.
D.Humans tend to recollect single bits of information more accurately than do animals.
E.The binding of different kinds of information is not a distinctive feature of episodic memory
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
A


Last edited by PiyushK on 30 Dec 2014, 07:52, edited 2 times in total.
formatted
VP
VP
avatar
Joined: 18 Nov 2004
Posts: 1442
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 20 [0], given: 0

The term [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2005, 20:15

EDITED: My 2nd ans was definitely wrong. Editing....

BCEC

Last edited by banerjeea_98 on 28 Feb 2005, 12:44, edited 1 time in total.
VP
VP
User avatar
Joined: 25 Nov 2004
Posts: 1495
Followers: 6

Kudos [?]: 38 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2005, 21:59
1.B
2.B
3.C
4.B
Director
Director
avatar
Joined: 29 Oct 2004
Posts: 865
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 63 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2005, 23:00
lots of different answers...
Anyone interested? please give it a try...
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 22 Jun 2004
Posts: 394
Location: Bangalore, India
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 2 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 10:50
I am getting them as
B
C
B
E

I took 9 minutes. How about other guys? Could you let me know?

Await OA's..
qhoc0010 wrote:
lots of different answers...
Anyone interested? please give it a try...

_________________

Awaiting response,

Thnx & Rgds,
Chandra

SVP
SVP
User avatar
Joined: 03 Jan 2005
Posts: 2250
Followers: 13

Kudos [?]: 217 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 11:03
I get BCCA.
Director
Director
avatar
Joined: 03 Nov 2004
Posts: 868
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 19 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 11:11
BECB
VP
VP
avatar
Joined: 18 Nov 2004
Posts: 1442
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 20 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 12:31
OA ?
Director
Director
avatar
Joined: 29 Oct 2004
Posts: 865
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 63 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 13:40
Sorry guys. I don't have OA. But here is my explaination.

1. B
There is a limitation in the experiment:
Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were experiencing the past when retrieving the information. Clayton acknowledged this by using the term "episodic-like" memory.

2. C
Clayton's birds switched their preference from crickets to peanuts once the food had been stored for a certain length of time, showing that they retain information about the what, the where, and the when.

3. C
According to these criteria, episodic memories are not of individual bits of information; they involve multiple components of a single event "bound" together.

4. A
B is very close. How to refute (B)?
Tulving said that "episodic memory" is a uniquely human capacity, so it is not in "animal." Clayton's only refers "episodic-like" memory in animal.
SVP
SVP
User avatar
Joined: 03 Jan 2005
Posts: 2250
Followers: 13

Kudos [?]: 217 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 13:49
qhoc0010 wrote:
4. A
B is very close. How to refute (B)?
Tulving said that "episodic memory" is a uniquely human capacity, so it is not in "animal." Clayton's only refers "episodic-like" memory in animal.


B says "Animals do not share humans' abilities to reexperience the past through memory." Guy1 believes that it is unique to human, but guy2 never claimed that. In fact he was trying to prove that guy1 was wrong with his experiment. Although he knew that his experiment did not provide a solid base to refute guy1's claim he was no where close to make a conclusion to concede to guy1.
VP
VP
avatar
Joined: 18 Nov 2004
Posts: 1442
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 20 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 13:52
qhoc0010 wrote:
Sorry guys. I don't have OA. But here is my explaination.

1. B
There is a limitation in the experiment:
Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were experiencing the past when retrieving the information. Clayton acknowledged this by using the term "episodic-like" memory.

2. C
Clayton's birds switched their preference from crickets to peanuts once the food had been stored for a certain length of time, showing that they retain information about the what, the where, and the when.

3. C
According to these criteria, episodic memories are not of individual bits of information; they involve multiple components of a single event "bound" together.

4. A
B is very close. How to refute (B)?
Tulving said that "episodic memory" is a uniquely human capacity, so it is not in "animal." Clayton's only refers "episodic-like" memory in animal.


hmmm....ques on # 3.....the last sentence of the para says "Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were experiencing the past when retrieving the information." Then how do we pick "C" (bind together information about different aspects of a single past event ) isn't it contradicting the author, I didn't choose this becose it says "past", which author denies. Can anyone explain ?

Again on # 4, author says that we don't know if animal has the ability to use past events, then how can we say in "A" that "Ability of an animal to gather single past event was not related to episodic memory". Can anyone answer these two to me plz. Thx

Last edited by banerjeea_98 on 28 Feb 2005, 13:58, edited 1 time in total.
SVP
SVP
User avatar
Joined: 03 Jan 2005
Posts: 2250
Followers: 13

Kudos [?]: 217 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 13:52
When you answer the questions, did you have to go back to the passage? I only needed to go back once for question 3, to check if it is indeed a "single" event. I knew it was about the experiment so I scanned that paragraph quickly and found this sentence: "Clayton's experiment required jays to remember the type, location, and freshness of stored food based on a unique learning event", which gave me the confirmation I needed.

So as I said before, I spend most of my time to understand the idea of the paragraph and leave the details, and I only needed very little time to answer the actual questions.
Director
Director
avatar
Joined: 29 Oct 2004
Posts: 865
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 63 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 13:58
Oh, so you mean (B) is little more extreme than (A)
(A) ...not conclusive evidence
may be/may be not -> the evidence is not so strong

(B) Animals do not share ...
completely conclude something that is unsure for Clayton
SVP
SVP
User avatar
Joined: 03 Jan 2005
Posts: 2250
Followers: 13

Kudos [?]: 217 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 14:03
I wouldn't say "a little more" extreme (for me the difference is day and night) but yes, that's basically what I meant. :)
VP
VP
avatar
Joined: 18 Nov 2004
Posts: 1442
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 20 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 14:06
HongHu wrote:
I wouldn't say "a little more" extreme (for me the difference is day and night) but yes, that's basically what I meant. :)


Hong can u plz ans two of my questions above ?
SVP
SVP
User avatar
Joined: 03 Jan 2005
Posts: 2250
Followers: 13

Kudos [?]: 217 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 14:10
banerjeea_98 wrote:
hmmm....ques on # 3.....the last sentence of the para says "Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were experiencing the past when retrieving the information." Then how do we pick "C" (bind together information about different aspects of a single past event ) isn't it contradicting the author, I didn't choose this becose it says "past", which author denies. Can anyone explain ?

Again on # 4, author says that we don't know if animal has the ability to use past events, then how can we say in "A" that "Ability of an animal to gather single past event was not related to episodic memory". Can anyone answer these two to me plz. Thx


Ok, to answer your question, we have to first get a good understanding about the passage.

The passage says this:
Guy1 believed that the ability of experiencing a past event and combining info from multiple events is unique to human.
Then guy2 set out to prove that animal has that ability too. (It didn't say so, but I tried to think what is the connection between guy1's theory and guy2's experiment and gained that understanding.) So guy2 did an experiment. He proved that birds can combine multiple info in a single learning event. But he ackowledged that he did not know whether birds were actually "experiencing" the past when they combine past knowleges.

So now to your questions:
Question 3, we did not know if birds were experiencing the past, but guy2 did prove that birds can combine multiple info from the past.

Question 4, we do know that animals can use past info from guy2's experiment, but we don't know if animals are experiencing the past, so to speak, when they use those past information.

[Edit]
banerjeea_98 wrote:
Hong can u plz ans two of my questions above ?


Sorry I missed your post btween my two posts. :) But I was working on that as soon as I finished my last post. ;);)
VP
VP
avatar
Joined: 18 Nov 2004
Posts: 1442
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 20 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 14:26
HongHu wrote:
banerjeea_98 wrote:
hmmm....ques on # 3.....the last sentence of the para says "Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were experiencing the past when retrieving the information." Then how do we pick "C" (bind together information about different aspects of a single past event ) isn't it contradicting the author, I didn't choose this becose it says "past", which author denies. Can anyone explain ?

Again on # 4, author says that we don't know if animal has the ability to use past events, then how can we say in "A" that "Ability of an animal to gather single past event was not related to episodic memory". Can anyone answer these two to me plz. Thx


Ok, to answer your question, we have to first get a good understanding about the passage.

The passage says this:
Guy1 believed that the ability of experiencing a past event and combining info from multiple events is unique to human.
Then guy2 set out to prove that animal has that ability too. (It didn't say so, but I tried to think what is the connection between guy1's theory and guy2's experiment and gained that understanding.) So guy2 did an experiment. He proved that birds can combine multiple info in a single learning event. But he ackowledged that he did not know whether birds were actually "experiencing" the past when they combine past knowleges.

So now to your questions:
Question 3, we did not know if birds were experiencing the past, but guy2 did prove that birds can combine multiple info from the past.

Question 4, we do know that animals can use past info from guy2's experiment, but we don't know if animals are experiencing the past, so to speak, when they use those past information.

[Edit]
banerjeea_98 wrote:
Hong can u plz ans two of my questions above ?


Sorry I missed your post btween my two posts. :) But I was working on that as soon as I finished my last post. ;);)


Thx for ur help, I guess I am still confused with the term "experiencing the past". Doesn't animal need to experience the past in order to retrieve info from a past event ? Or is the psg saying that retrieve info from past event is more like a habitual thing or learning exp rather than mentally going back to the past to get info on an event. :? [/b]
SVP
SVP
User avatar
Joined: 03 Jan 2005
Posts: 2250
Followers: 13

Kudos [?]: 217 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 14:36
banerjeea_98 wrote:
Thx for ur help, I guess I am still confused with the term "experiencing the past". Doesn't animal need to experience the past in order to retrieve info from a past event ?

We don't know about this. You can't base your understanding on your pervious knowlege or your own assumptions. The passage specifically stated that the birds can combine multiple info, but the scientist who did the experiment was not sure if it was because they were experiencing the past.

Quote:
Or is the psg saying that retrieve info from past event is more like a habitual thing or learning exp rather than mentally going back to the past to get info on an event. :?

Possible. But again we can make our own conjestures but the answer must be based on the passage.
Director
Director
User avatar
Joined: 08 Jul 2004
Posts: 604
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 82 [0], given: 0

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 25 Jul 2005, 06:07
Hi all
Why E is not answer to Q4. Since animal can also bind the information as shown in the experiment.
_________________

Regards, S

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 10 Mar 2013
Posts: 225
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 23 [0], given: 1994

Re: The term [#permalink] New post 19 May 2014, 18:27
According to a PDF that I have, BCCA is the OA for this RC passage.
Re: The term   [#permalink] 19 May 2014, 18:27

Go to page    1   2    Next  [ 23 posts ] 

    Similar topics Author Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
4 Anglosaxon terms Mds89 4 03 Dec 2010, 01:14
1 Experts publish their posts in the topic Unknown term. Yalephd 3 09 Oct 2010, 08:47
sum of terms ritula 2 29 Jan 2009, 03:40
19 Experts publish their posts in the topic Though the term Hang Tuah 26 06 Nov 2006, 20:48
in terms of x mandy 1 13 Jun 2005, 14:40
Display posts from previous: Sort by

The term

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Privacy Policy| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.