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The term "episodic memory" was introduced by

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The term "episodic memory" was introduced by [#permalink] New post 05 May 2012, 01:11
The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what he considered a uniquely human capacity, the ability to recollect specific past events, to travel back into the past in one¡¯s own mind--as distinct from the capacity simply to use information acquired through past experiences. Subsequently, Clayton et al. developed criteria to test for episodic memory in animals. According to these criteria, episodic memories are not of individual bits of information; they involve multiple components of a single event "bound" together. Clayton sought to examine evidence of scrub jays' accurate memory of "what," "where,"and "when" information and their binding of this information. In the wild, these birds store food for retrieval later during periods of food scarcity. Clayton's experiment required jays to remember the type, location, and freshness of stored food based on a unique learning event. Crickets were stored in one location and peanuts in another. Jays prefer crickets, but crickets degrade more quickly. Clayton's birds switched their preference from crickets to peanuts once the food had been stored for a certain length of time, showing that they retain information about the what, the where, and the when. Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were experiencing the past when retrieving the information. Clayton acknowledged this by using the term "episodic-like" memory.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A.explain how the findings of a particular experiment have been interpreted and offer an alternative interpretation
B.describe a particular experiment and point out one of its limitations
C.present similarities between human memory and animal memory
D.point out a flaw in the argument that a certain capacity is uniquely human
E.account for the unexpected behavior of animal subjects in a particular experiment
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


2. According to the passage, Clayton's experiment depended on the fact that scrub jays
A.recall "when" and "where" information more distinctly than "what" information
B.are not able to retain information about a single past event for an indefinitely long period of time
C.choose peanuts over crickets when the crickets have been stored for a long period of time
D.choose crickets over peanuts whenever both are available
E.prefer peanuts that have been stored for a short period to crickets that have been stored for a short period
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


3. The passage suggests that Clayton's experiment demonstrated scrub jays' ability to
A.choose different storage places for different kinds of food to minimize the rate at which a food will degrade
B.unlearn a behavior they use in the wild in order to adapt to laboratory conditions
C.bind together information about different aspects of a single past event
D.reexperience a past event in memory and act accordingly
E.distinguish one learning event from a subsequent learning event
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


4. It can be inferred from the passage that both Tulving and Clayton would agree with which of the following statements?
A.Animals' abilities to use information about a specific past event are not conclusive evidence of episodic memory.
B.Animals do not share humans' abilities to reexperience the past through memory.
C.The accuracy of animals' memories is difficult to determine through direct experimentation.
D.Humans tend to recollect single bits of information more accurately than do animals.
E.The binding of different kinds of information is not a distinctive feature of episodic memory
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

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Re: GWD #15 V9 [#permalink] New post 05 May 2012, 01:18
OA is BCCA.

I have a question about the number 2.

When I looked up this Q, I found people say that C is correct because only C is mentioned in the passage.
I agree with them. However, I'd like to know the logic that justifies the choice C.

Thanks.
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Re: GWD #15 V9 [#permalink] New post 08 May 2012, 19:12
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eybrj2 wrote:
OA is BCCA.

I have a question about the number 2.

When I looked up this Q, I found people say that C is correct because only C is mentioned in the passage.
I agree with them. However, I'd like to know the logic that justifies the choice C.

Thanks.


IMO, it's a combo of that and understanding what Clayton was trying to accomplish. By choosing peanuts over crickets, his jays were remembering what type of food was being stored where and how long it was stored there, thus showing that they could have episodic-like memories.
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Re: GWD #15 V9 [#permalink] New post 18 May 2012, 19:47
how does one decide the level of toughness in RC?

a while back, i did an RC on social sciences which was
tagged as a 600-700 level passage... i managed to get only
2 out of 4 correct while on this one - a 700+ level passage -
i got all of the questions right.... :?
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Re: GWD #15 V9 [#permalink] New post 04 Jun 2012, 00:31
I got #3 wrong but i must agree this passage is straight forward and should be in the 600+ category.
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Re: GWD #15 V9 [#permalink] New post 21 Jan 2013, 03:47
veerapan88 wrote:
eybrj2 wrote:
OA is BCCA.

I have a question about the number 2.

When I looked up this Q, I found people say that C is correct because only C is mentioned in the passage.
I agree with them. However, I'd like to know the logic that justifies the choice C.

Thanks.


IMO, it's a combo of that and understanding what Clayton was trying to accomplish. By choosing peanuts over crickets, his jays were remembering what type of food was being stored where and how long it was stored there, thus showing that they could have episodic-like memories.


But isn't that the result of the experiment ... the question was what the experiment was depended on ...
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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by [#permalink] New post 21 Jan 2013, 03:48
Can anyone explain why A for #4 ... and not E??
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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by [#permalink] New post 26 Jan 2013, 19:20
It took me 7mins:
1 B 02:45
2 D 01:01
3 C 01:01
4 B 02:38

Got 2 ques wrong...but can anyone explain ques 2 and 4?
I am not able to find any logic for the OAs.
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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by [#permalink] New post 27 Jan 2013, 11:32
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Hi There,

Seems to be a few questions over Q 4. Let me see if I can help.

4. It can be inferred from the passage that both Tulving and Clayton would agree with which of the following statements?

Here are the answer choices:

A.Animals' abilities to use information about a specific past event are not conclusive evidence of episodic memory. This is correct. Tulving says episodic memory is for humans only, and Clayton says that his work on Jays is uncertain so calls it 'episodic like'. So neither CONCLUSIVELY argues for this.

B.Animals do not share humans' abilities to reexperience the past through memory. Incorrect. Clayton's research suggests they may be able to

C.The accuracy of animals' memories is difficult to determine through direct experimentation. Incorrect. This may or may not be true, we don't have evidence for this

D.Humans tend to recollect single bits of information more accurately than do animals.Incorrect. As per C, we don't have evidence on this in the passage

E.The binding of different kinds of information is not a distinctive feature of episodic memoryIncorrect. We do not see 'binding' mentioned at all under Tulving, it is only mentioned when we talk about Clayton.

So overall, when looking at this question there are 2 things I take away.
1) In answer A we have the word 'conclusively' - this is often a give away word, it requires a very high level of proof
2) In this passage we only talk about Tulving for a very short period - the majority is on Clayton, so for Tulving and Clayton to agree, we have to find evidence in the Tulving section - as this is short, it's easy to work it out.

Hope this helps...

James
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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by [#permalink] New post 28 Jan 2013, 07:04
plumber250 wrote:
Hi There,

Seems to be a few questions over Q 4. Let me see if I can help.

4. It can be inferred from the passage that both Tulving and Clayton would agree with which of the following statements?

Here are the answer choices:

A.Animals' abilities to use information about a specific past event are not conclusive evidence of episodic memory. This is correct. Tulving says episodic memory is for humans only, and Clayton says that his work on Jays is uncertain so calls it 'episodic like'. So neither CONCLUSIVELY argues for this.

B.Animals do not share humans' abilities to reexperience the past through memory. Incorrect. Clayton's research suggests they may be able to

C.The accuracy of animals' memories is difficult to determine through direct experimentation. Incorrect. This may or may not be true, we don't have evidence for this

D.Humans tend to recollect single bits of information more accurately than do animals.Incorrect. As per C, we don't have evidence on this in the passage

E.The binding of different kinds of information is not a distinctive feature of episodic memoryIncorrect. We do not see 'binding' mentioned at all under Tulving, it is only mentioned when we talk about Clayton.

So overall, when looking at this question there are 2 things I take away.
1) In answer A we have the word 'conclusively' - this is often a give away word, it requires a very high level of proof
2) In this passage we only talk about Tulving for a very short period - the majority is on Clayton, so for Tulving and Clayton to agree, we have to find evidence in the Tulving section - as this is short, it's easy to work it out.

Hope this helps...

James


Thanks James for the explanation.
It will be really helpful if you could also explain Q2....
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Re: GWD #15 V9 [#permalink] New post 17 Mar 2013, 06:48
gmatfighter12 wrote:
I got #3 wrong but i must agree this passage is straight forward and should be in the 600+ category.


Hi gmatfighter12,

It is not the wording of the passage but question types along with answer choices make the passage difficult, though I agree that since this is LSAT passage, one cannot determine the exact complexity and thus level of the passage.

THanks
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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by [#permalink] New post 17 Mar 2013, 06:58
crazypriya wrote:
It took me 7mins:
1 B 02:45
2 D 01:01
3 C 01:01
4 B 02:38

Got 2 ques wrong...but can anyone explain ques 2 and 4?
I am not able to find any logic for the OAs.


Question Stem -
According to the passage, Clayton's experiment depended on the fact that scrub jays

Since this is a specific question, answer must follow from the information given in passage-


2. According to the passage, Clayton's experiment depended on the fact that scrub jays
A.recall "when" and "where" information more distinctly than "what" information - INCORRECT - Checkout Clayton's theory. Its what, "what," "where,"and "when" information and their binding of this information.

B.are not able to retain information about a single past event for an indefinitely long period of time - No evidence given

C.choose peanuts over crickets when the crickets have been stored for a long period of time -
Here is the information from passage-
Clayton's birds switched their preference from crickets to peanuts once the food had been stored for a certain length of time, showing that they retain information about the what, the where, and the when

D.choose crickets over peanuts whenever both are available - might be true. but, this information doesn't form the basis of Clayton's theory.
What forms the basis is the preference changes when Crickets degrades, that's the reason clayton is going to answer his theory of What, where and when.

If you are Scientist performing some experiment, then what is your expected result will form the basis. Hence, this is not a valid answer. Check out above option, it clearly maps with clayton's theory

E.prefer peanuts that have been stored for a short period to crickets that have been stored for a short period - I couldn't find highlighted part in passage.
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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by [#permalink] New post 07 Jul 2014, 16:52
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