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The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to

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The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2005, 18:58
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The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what he considered a uniquely human capacity, the ability to recollect specific past events, to travel back into the past in one¡¯s own mind--as distinct from the capacity simply to use information acquired through past experiences. Subsequently, Clayton et al. developed criteria to test for episodic memory in animals. According to these criteria, episodic memories are not of individual bits of information; they involve multiple components of a single event "bound" together. Clayton sought to examine evidence of scrub jays' accurate memory of "what," "where,"and "when" information and their binding of this information. In the wild, these birds store food for retrieval later during periods of food scarcity. Clayton's experiment required jays to remember the type, location, and freshness of stored food based on a unique learning event. Crickets were stored in one location and peanuts in another. Jays prefer crickets, but crickets degrade more quickly. Clayton's birds switched their preference from crickets to peanuts once the food had been stored for a certain length of time, showing that they retain information about the what, the where, and the when. Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were experiencing the past when retrieving the information. Clayton acknowledged this by using the term "episodic-like" memory.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A.explain how the findings of a particular experiment have been interpreted and offer an alternative interpretation
B.describe a particular experiment and point out one of its limitations
C.present similarities between human memory and animal memory
D.point out a flaw in the argument that a certain capacity is uniquely human
E.account for the unexpected behavior of animal subjects in a particular experiment

2. According to the passage, Clayton's experiment depended on the fact that scrub jays
A.recall "when" and "where" information more distinctly than "what" information
B.are not able to retain information about a single past event for an indefinitely long period of time
C.choose peanuts over crickets when the crickets have been stored for a long period of time
D.choose crickets over peanuts whenever both are available
E.prefer peanuts that have been stored for a short period to crickets that have been stored for a short period

3. The passage suggests that Clayton's experiment demonstrated scrub jays' ability to
A.choose different storage places for different kinds of food to minimize the rate at which a food will degrade
B.unlearn a behavior they use in the wild in order to adapt to laboratory conditions
C.bind together information about different aspects of a single past event
D.reexperience a past event in memory and act accordingly
E.distinguish one learning event from a subsequent learning event

4. It can be inferred from the passage that both Tulving and Clayton would agree with which of the following statements?
A.Animals' abilities to use information about a specific past event are not conclusive evidence of episodic memory.
B.Animals do not share humans' abilities to reexperience the past through memory.
C.The accuracy of animals' memories is difficult to determine through direct experimentation.
D.Humans tend to recollect single bits of information more accurately than do animals.
E.The binding of different kinds of information is not a distinctive feature of episodic memory
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 [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2005, 20:15
EDITED: My 2nd ans was definitely wrong. Editing....

BCEC

Last edited by banerjeea_98 on 28 Feb 2005, 12:44, edited 1 time in total.
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 [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2005, 21:59
1.B
2.B
3.C
4.B
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 [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2005, 23:00
lots of different answers...
Anyone interested? please give it a try...
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 10:50
I am getting them as
B
C
B
E

I took 9 minutes. How about other guys? Could you let me know?

Await OA's..
qhoc0010 wrote:
lots of different answers...
Anyone interested? please give it a try...

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Awaiting response,

Thnx & Rgds,
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 11:03
I get BCCA.
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 11:11
BECB
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 12:31
OA ?
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 13:40
Sorry guys. I don't have OA. But here is my explaination.

1. B
There is a limitation in the experiment:
Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were experiencing the past when retrieving the information. Clayton acknowledged this by using the term "episodic-like" memory.

2. C
Clayton's birds switched their preference from crickets to peanuts once the food had been stored for a certain length of time, showing that they retain information about the what, the where, and the when.

3. C
According to these criteria, episodic memories are not of individual bits of information; they involve multiple components of a single event "bound" together.

4. A
B is very close. How to refute (B)?
Tulving said that "episodic memory" is a uniquely human capacity, so it is not in "animal." Clayton's only refers "episodic-like" memory in animal.
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 13:49
qhoc0010 wrote:
4. A
B is very close. How to refute (B)?
Tulving said that "episodic memory" is a uniquely human capacity, so it is not in "animal." Clayton's only refers "episodic-like" memory in animal.


B says "Animals do not share humans' abilities to reexperience the past through memory." Guy1 believes that it is unique to human, but guy2 never claimed that. In fact he was trying to prove that guy1 was wrong with his experiment. Although he knew that his experiment did not provide a solid base to refute guy1's claim he was no where close to make a conclusion to concede to guy1.
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 13:52
qhoc0010 wrote:
Sorry guys. I don't have OA. But here is my explaination.

1. B
There is a limitation in the experiment:
Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were experiencing the past when retrieving the information. Clayton acknowledged this by using the term "episodic-like" memory.

2. C
Clayton's birds switched their preference from crickets to peanuts once the food had been stored for a certain length of time, showing that they retain information about the what, the where, and the when.

3. C
According to these criteria, episodic memories are not of individual bits of information; they involve multiple components of a single event "bound" together.

4. A
B is very close. How to refute (B)?
Tulving said that "episodic memory" is a uniquely human capacity, so it is not in "animal." Clayton's only refers "episodic-like" memory in animal.


hmmm....ques on # 3.....the last sentence of the para says "Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were experiencing the past when retrieving the information." Then how do we pick "C" (bind together information about different aspects of a single past event ) isn't it contradicting the author, I didn't choose this becose it says "past", which author denies. Can anyone explain ?

Again on # 4, author says that we don't know if animal has the ability to use past events, then how can we say in "A" that "Ability of an animal to gather single past event was not related to episodic memory". Can anyone answer these two to me plz. Thx

Last edited by banerjeea_98 on 28 Feb 2005, 13:58, edited 1 time in total.
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 13:52
When you answer the questions, did you have to go back to the passage? I only needed to go back once for question 3, to check if it is indeed a "single" event. I knew it was about the experiment so I scanned that paragraph quickly and found this sentence: "Clayton's experiment required jays to remember the type, location, and freshness of stored food based on a unique learning event", which gave me the confirmation I needed.

So as I said before, I spend most of my time to understand the idea of the paragraph and leave the details, and I only needed very little time to answer the actual questions.
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 13:58
Oh, so you mean (B) is little more extreme than (A)
(A) ...not conclusive evidence
may be/may be not -> the evidence is not so strong

(B) Animals do not share ...
completely conclude something that is unsure for Clayton
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 14:03
I wouldn't say "a little more" extreme (for me the difference is day and night) but yes, that's basically what I meant. :)
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 14:06
HongHu wrote:
I wouldn't say "a little more" extreme (for me the difference is day and night) but yes, that's basically what I meant. :)


Hong can u plz ans two of my questions above ?
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 14:10
banerjeea_98 wrote:
hmmm....ques on # 3.....the last sentence of the para says "Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were experiencing the past when retrieving the information." Then how do we pick "C" (bind together information about different aspects of a single past event ) isn't it contradicting the author, I didn't choose this becose it says "past", which author denies. Can anyone explain ?

Again on # 4, author says that we don't know if animal has the ability to use past events, then how can we say in "A" that "Ability of an animal to gather single past event was not related to episodic memory". Can anyone answer these two to me plz. Thx


Ok, to answer your question, we have to first get a good understanding about the passage.

The passage says this:
Guy1 believed that the ability of experiencing a past event and combining info from multiple events is unique to human.
Then guy2 set out to prove that animal has that ability too. (It didn't say so, but I tried to think what is the connection between guy1's theory and guy2's experiment and gained that understanding.) So guy2 did an experiment. He proved that birds can combine multiple info in a single learning event. But he ackowledged that he did not know whether birds were actually "experiencing" the past when they combine past knowleges.

So now to your questions:
Question 3, we did not know if birds were experiencing the past, but guy2 did prove that birds can combine multiple info from the past.

Question 4, we do know that animals can use past info from guy2's experiment, but we don't know if animals are experiencing the past, so to speak, when they use those past information.

[Edit]
banerjeea_98 wrote:
Hong can u plz ans two of my questions above ?


Sorry I missed your post btween my two posts. :) But I was working on that as soon as I finished my last post. ;);)
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 14:26
HongHu wrote:
banerjeea_98 wrote:
hmmm....ques on # 3.....the last sentence of the para says "Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were experiencing the past when retrieving the information." Then how do we pick "C" (bind together information about different aspects of a single past event ) isn't it contradicting the author, I didn't choose this becose it says "past", which author denies. Can anyone explain ?

Again on # 4, author says that we don't know if animal has the ability to use past events, then how can we say in "A" that "Ability of an animal to gather single past event was not related to episodic memory". Can anyone answer these two to me plz. Thx


Ok, to answer your question, we have to first get a good understanding about the passage.

The passage says this:
Guy1 believed that the ability of experiencing a past event and combining info from multiple events is unique to human.
Then guy2 set out to prove that animal has that ability too. (It didn't say so, but I tried to think what is the connection between guy1's theory and guy2's experiment and gained that understanding.) So guy2 did an experiment. He proved that birds can combine multiple info in a single learning event. But he ackowledged that he did not know whether birds were actually "experiencing" the past when they combine past knowleges.

So now to your questions:
Question 3, we did not know if birds were experiencing the past, but guy2 did prove that birds can combine multiple info from the past.

Question 4, we do know that animals can use past info from guy2's experiment, but we don't know if animals are experiencing the past, so to speak, when they use those past information.

[Edit]
banerjeea_98 wrote:
Hong can u plz ans two of my questions above ?


Sorry I missed your post btween my two posts. :) But I was working on that as soon as I finished my last post. ;);)


Thx for ur help, I guess I am still confused with the term "experiencing the past". Doesn't animal need to experience the past in order to retrieve info from a past event ? Or is the psg saying that retrieve info from past event is more like a habitual thing or learning exp rather than mentally going back to the past to get info on an event. :? [/b]
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2005, 14:36
banerjeea_98 wrote:
Thx for ur help, I guess I am still confused with the term "experiencing the past". Doesn't animal need to experience the past in order to retrieve info from a past event ?

We don't know about this. You can't base your understanding on your pervious knowlege or your own assumptions. The passage specifically stated that the birds can combine multiple info, but the scientist who did the experiment was not sure if it was because they were experiencing the past.

Quote:
Or is the psg saying that retrieve info from past event is more like a habitual thing or learning exp rather than mentally going back to the past to get info on an event. :?

Possible. But again we can make our own conjestures but the answer must be based on the passage.
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 [#permalink] New post 25 Jul 2005, 06:07
Hi all
Why E is not answer to Q4. Since animal can also bind the information as shown in the experiment.
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Re: The term [#permalink] New post 19 May 2014, 18:27
According to a PDF that I have, BCCA is the OA for this RC passage.
Re: The term   [#permalink] 19 May 2014, 18:27
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