The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of : GMAT Data Sufficiency (DS)
Check GMAT Club Decision Tracker for the Latest School Decision Releases http://gmatclub.com/AppTrack

 It is currently 17 Jan 2017, 05:35

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of

Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Intern
Joined: 28 May 2010
Posts: 34
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 28 [2] , given: 15

The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of [#permalink]

Show Tags

18 Jul 2010, 19:54
2
KUDOS
12
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00

Difficulty:

55% (hard)

Question Stats:

58% (02:09) correct 42% (01:14) wrong based on 487 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of item X's fixed cost and variable cost. If the variable cost of producing X decreased by 5% in January, by what percent did the total cost of producing item X change in January?

(1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January.

(2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X.

-----------
My question is, why isn't the answer B? The prompt didn't say fixed cost MUST change...
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
Math Expert
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 36531
Followers: 7071

Kudos [?]: 92969 [8] , given: 10541

Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink]

Show Tags

18 Jul 2010, 20:44
8
KUDOS
Expert's post
3
This post was
BOOKMARKED
knabi wrote:
The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of item X's fixed cost and variable cost. If the variable cost of producing X decreased by 5% in January, by what percent did the total cost of producing item X change in January?

(1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January.

(2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X.

-----------
My question is, why isn't the answer B? The prompt didn't say fixed cost MUST change...

(2) is not sufficient as we don't know what happened with fixed cost in January. Didi it increase? Decrease? Remained the same? As we have no information about it we can not assume anything. So it's clear C. Below is calculations for C:

Let the total cost in January be $$C_2$$ and the total cost before be $$C_1$$.

Given: $$C_2=F_2+V_2$$ and $$C_1=F_1+V_1$$, also $$V_2=0.95V_1$$.
Question: $$\frac{C_2}{C_1}=\frac{F_2+V_2}{F_1+V_1}=\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?$$

(1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January --> $$F_2=1.13F_1$$ --> $$\frac{1.13F_1+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?$$. Not sufficient to get the exact fraction.

(2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X --> $$F_1=5V_1$$ --> $$\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=?$$. Not sufficient.

(1)+(2) $$F_2=1.13F_1$$ and $$F_1=5V_1$$ --> $$F_2=1.13F_1=5.65V_1$$ --> from (2) $$\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?$$ --> substituting $$F_2$$ and $$F_1$$--> $$\frac{5.65V_1+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=\frac{6.6}{6}=1.1$$ --> in January total cost increased by 10%. Sufficient. (Actually no calculations are needed: stem and statement provide us with such relationships of 4 unknowns that 3 of them can be written with help of the 4th one and when we put them in fraction, which we want to calculate, then this last unknown is reduced, leaving us with numerical value).

Hope it's clear.
_________________
VP
Status: There is always something new !!
Affiliations: PMI,QAI Global,eXampleCG
Joined: 08 May 2009
Posts: 1353
Followers: 17

Kudos [?]: 240 [0], given: 10

Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink]

Show Tags

05 May 2011, 21:24
a c1= f+v
c2 = kf + 0.95v
k = 1.13. no relative information between f and v. Not sufficient.

b f=5v

c1= 6v. not sufficient.

a+b gives c1 = 6v and c2 = 1.13 * 5v + 0.95 v

thus C
_________________

Visit -- http://www.sustainable-sphere.com/
Promote Green Business,Sustainable Living and Green Earth !!

Intern
Status: ThinkTank
Joined: 07 Mar 2009
Posts: 28
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 7 [0], given: 3

Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink]

Show Tags

06 May 2011, 08:17
To get the percentage change, we need two of the three in the same units: original, change or new. Both statements give us original and new in terms of y so it is sufficient. But 2) alone gives only original in terms of y and 1) gives new fixed cost but the total new is in different units. Combining both in same unit gives us percentage change.
_________________

http://www.hannibalprep.com

Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Posts: 920
Followers: 14

Kudos [?]: 341 [1] , given: 123

Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink]

Show Tags

06 May 2011, 20:52
1
KUDOS
Karishma
Pls can you verify this solution. I think this is a weighted average problem.

Combining 1) + 2)
13% increase in the fixed cost and 5% is decrease in variable cost.
We know that the weights w1 : w2 are 5 : 1 i.e. Fixed cost : Variable cost = 5 : 1

Hence the %age in the total cost = (13 * w1 - 5 * w2) / (w1 + w2)

%change in total cost = (13 * 5 - 5 * 1) / (5 + 1) = 60/ 6 = 10% increase

knabi wrote:
The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of item X's fixed cost and variable cost. If the variable cost of producing X decreased by 5% in January, by what percent did the total cost of producing item X change in January?

(1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January.

(2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.
Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.
Both statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER one ALONE is sufficient.
EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

-----------
My question is, why isn't the answer B? The prompt didn't say fixed cost MUST change...
SVP
Joined: 16 Nov 2010
Posts: 1672
Location: United States (IN)
Concentration: Strategy, Technology
Followers: 33

Kudos [?]: 514 [0], given: 36

Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink]

Show Tags

07 May 2011, 04:48
(1)

X1 = 1.13F + 0.95V

Not sufficient

(2)

F = 5V

=> X = 6V

X1 = F1 + V1

but we don't know by how much F and V have changed

(1) + (2) gives

X1 = 1.13F + 0.95V = 1.13 * 5V + 0.95V

So (X1-X)/X can be found

_________________

Formula of Life -> Achievement/Potential = k * Happiness (where k is a constant)

GMAT Club Premium Membership - big benefits and savings

Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 7119
Location: Pune, India
Followers: 2130

Kudos [?]: 13629 [1] , given: 222

Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink]

Show Tags

07 May 2011, 10:13
1
KUDOS
Expert's post
gmat1220 wrote:
Karishma
Pls can you verify this solution. I think this is a weighted average problem.

Combining 1) + 2)
13% increase in the fixed cost and 5% is decrease in variable cost.
We know that the weights w1 : w2 are 5 : 1 i.e. Fixed cost : Variable cost = 5 : 1

Hence the %age in the total cost = (13 * w1 - 5 * w2) / (w1 + w2)

%change in total cost = (13 * 5 - 5 * 1) / (5 + 1) = 60/ 6 = 10% increase

Good call! We see that we can use weighted averages. We already have A1, Stmnt1 gives us A2 and Stmnt2 gives us w1/w2 so we can use w1/w2 = (A2 - Avg)/(Avg - A1) and get the answer. We don't even need to calculate. Finally, I feel my effort of showing the utility of 'weighted averages' is paying off! If you were in my class, the day's candy would have been yours!
_________________

Karishma
Veritas Prep | GMAT Instructor
My Blog

Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for $199 Veritas Prep Reviews Senior Manager Joined: 08 Nov 2010 Posts: 417 WE 1: Business Development Followers: 7 Kudos [?]: 105 [0], given: 161 Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink] Show Tags 07 May 2011, 10:28 Karishma - can u plz post ur blogging that dealing with this weighted average system? _________________ Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor Joined: 16 Oct 2010 Posts: 7119 Location: Pune, India Followers: 2130 Kudos [?]: 13629 [3] , given: 222 Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink] Show Tags 07 May 2011, 10:59 3 This post received KUDOS Expert's post 144144 wrote: Karishma - can u plz post ur blogging that dealing with this weighted average system? Here you go: http://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2011/03 ... -averages/ http://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2011/04 ... ge-brutes/ http://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2011/04 ... -mixtures/ My signature gives the link to all my blog posts (they are together under the section 'Quarter Wit, Quarter Wisdom'). I have given the link for the weighted average related posts above. _________________ Karishma Veritas Prep | GMAT Instructor My Blog Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for$199

Veritas Prep Reviews

Director
Joined: 01 Feb 2011
Posts: 757
Followers: 14

Kudos [?]: 115 [0], given: 42

Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink]

Show Tags

07 May 2011, 19:06
TC1 = F +V

TC2 = F2+0.95V Jan

1. Not sufficient.

F2 = 0.87F
TC2 = 0.87F+0.95V

TC2/TC1 = (0.87F+0.95V)/(F+V)

2. TC= 6V

TC2 = F2+0.95V

no F2 , so not sufficient.

together we have

TC2 = 0.87F+0.95V

TC2/TC1 = (0.87F+0.95V)/(F+V) and F= 6V => sufficient.

Current Student
Joined: 26 May 2005
Posts: 565
Followers: 18

Kudos [?]: 203 [1] , given: 13

Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink]

Show Tags

08 Jun 2011, 22:09
1
KUDOS
I would have used plugging in strategy here;

statement 2. fixed cost = 5* VC
assume VC = 20 , FC = 100 Total cost = 120

information : VC decreased 5% = 20-5% = 19
statement 1. FC increased 13% = 100+13% = 113
total new cost = 113+19 = 132

% increase over previous TC = 132-120/120 = 12/120 = 10%
Manager
Status: On...
Joined: 16 Jan 2011
Posts: 189
Followers: 4

Kudos [?]: 62 [0], given: 62

Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink]

Show Tags

10 Jul 2011, 15:16
I think most people will fall into the trap if they assume FC and VC as some values say 100,200...
In this case B will be correct

But this approach will work only if there is a single unknown...This is a classic example when it will not work directly

There are 2 approaches

1) If you like formulas : Weighted average is the best approach as illustrated by Karishma

2) I like the lazy-man approach for DS, so I am assuming FC=x,VC=y...As per qn. y decr. by 5%
So we need

Increase/(x+y)
x incr. by 13% as per A...But no relation b/w x and y ==> This is insufficient

As per B, x=5y...But what is increase ?

Combining A and B, there is a non-redundant relation and increase can be calculated
So go with C and MOVE ON

Choose the approach that best suites you...Also calculate values only if needed in DS.

Bunuel has shown the complete steps of calculation for purely illustration...
_________________

Labor cost for typing this post >= Labor cost for pushing the Kudos Button
http://gmatclub.com/forum/kudos-what-are-they-and-why-we-have-them-94812.html

Manager
Joined: 28 May 2011
Posts: 195
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 720 Q49 V38
GPA: 3.6
WE: Project Management (Computer Software)
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 59 [0], given: 7

Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink]

Show Tags

16 Jul 2011, 10:01
On a different note, I had assumed that Fixed Cost would remain constant(as I think that's the whole meaning of Fixed cost) for the period (January) mentioned until I saw the Statement-1.

Do you guys also think sometimes statements themselves change your approach of approaching the problem? OR we should not be used to understand the problem itself?
_________________

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://gmatclub.com/forum/a-guide-to-the-official-guide-13-for-gmat-review-134210.html
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Intern
Joined: 01 Apr 2013
Posts: 30
Schools: Tepper '16 (S)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 4 [0], given: 37

Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink]

Show Tags

10 Jun 2013, 23:31
Bunuel wrote:
knabi wrote:
The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of item X's fixed cost and variable cost. If the variable cost of producing X decreased by 5% in January, by what percent did the total cost of producing item X change in January?

(1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January.

(2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X.

-----------
My question is, why isn't the answer B? The prompt didn't say fixed cost MUST change...

(2) is not sufficient as we don't know what happened with fixed cost in January. Didi it increase? Decrease? Remained the same? As we have no information about it we can not assume anything. So it's clear C. Below is calculations for C:

Let the total cost in January be $$C_2$$ and the total cost before be $$C_1$$.

Given: $$C_2=F_2+V_2$$ and $$C_1=F_1+V_1$$, also $$V_2=0.95V_1$$.
Question: $$\frac{C_2}{C_1}=\frac{F_2+V_2}{F_1+V_1}=\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?$$

(1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January --> $$F_2=1.13F_1$$ --> $$\frac{1.13F_1+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?$$. Not sufficient to get the exact fraction.

(2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X --> $$F_1=5V_1$$ --> $$\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=?$$. Not sufficient.

(1)+(2) $$F_2=1.13F_1$$ and $$F_1=5V_1$$ --> $$F_2=1.13F_1=5.65V_1$$ --> from (2) $$\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?$$ --> substituting $$F_2$$ and $$F_1$$--> $$\frac{5.65V_1+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=\frac{6.6}{6}=1.1$$ --> in January total cost increased by 10%. Sufficient. (Actually no calculations are needed: stem and statement provide us with such relationships of 4 unknowns that 3 of them can be written with help of the 4th one and when we put them in fraction, which we want to calculate, then this last unknown is reduced, leaving us with numerical value).

Hope it's clear.

Hi Bunuel ,

I have a small doubt , it is stated that "BEFORE THE CHANGES IN JANUARY " the fixed costs were so and so , how can we infer from this statement that the proportion could have been the same in january also ???
Math Expert
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 36531
Followers: 7071

Kudos [?]: 92969 [0], given: 10541

Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink]

Show Tags

11 Jun 2013, 05:39
venkat18290 wrote:
Bunuel wrote:
knabi wrote:
The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of item X's fixed cost and variable cost. If the variable cost of producing X decreased by 5% in January, by what percent did the total cost of producing item X change in January?

(1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January.

(2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X.

-----------
My question is, why isn't the answer B? The prompt didn't say fixed cost MUST change...

(2) is not sufficient as we don't know what happened with fixed cost in January. Didi it increase? Decrease? Remained the same? As we have no information about it we can not assume anything. So it's clear C. Below is calculations for C:

Let the total cost in January be $$C_2$$ and the total cost before be $$C_1$$.

Given: $$C_2=F_2+V_2$$ and $$C_1=F_1+V_1$$, also $$V_2=0.95V_1$$.
Question: $$\frac{C_2}{C_1}=\frac{F_2+V_2}{F_1+V_1}=\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?$$

(1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January --> $$F_2=1.13F_1$$ --> $$\frac{1.13F_1+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?$$. Not sufficient to get the exact fraction.

(2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X --> $$F_1=5V_1$$ --> $$\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=?$$. Not sufficient.

(1)+(2) $$F_2=1.13F_1$$ and $$F_1=5V_1$$ --> $$F_2=1.13F_1=5.65V_1$$ --> from (2) $$\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?$$ --> substituting $$F_2$$ and $$F_1$$--> $$\frac{5.65V_1+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=\frac{6.6}{6}=1.1$$ --> in January total cost increased by 10%. Sufficient. (Actually no calculations are needed: stem and statement provide us with such relationships of 4 unknowns that 3 of them can be written with help of the 4th one and when we put them in fraction, which we want to calculate, then this last unknown is reduced, leaving us with numerical value).

Hope it's clear.

Hi Bunuel ,

I have a small doubt , it is stated that "BEFORE THE CHANGES IN JANUARY " the fixed costs were so and so , how can we infer from this statement that the proportion could have been the same in january also ???

Where do we infer that?
_________________
Intern
Joined: 01 Apr 2013
Posts: 30
Schools: Tepper '16 (S)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 4 [0], given: 37

Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink]

Show Tags

11 Jun 2013, 06:07
(1)+(2) $$F_2=1.13F_1$$ and $$F_1=5V_1$$ --> $$F_2=1.13F_1=5.65V_1$$ --> from (2) $$\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?$$ --> substituting $$F_2$$ and $$F_1$$--> $$\frac{5.65V_1+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=\frac{6.6}{6}=1.1$$ --> in January total cost increased by 10%. Sufficient. (Actually no calculations are needed: stem and statement provide us with such relationships of 4 unknowns that 3 of them can be written with help of the 4th one and when we put them in fraction, which we want to calculate, then this last unknown is reduced, leaving us with numerical value).

Please check the bold part .. you have taken F2=1.13F1 and F1=5V1 . My doubt was how did you take F1=5V1 when combining both the statements .

IMO : Statement 2 was all about before price change in January , so the statement 2 does not give us any information about the price in January . So how can we even consider statement 2 ?

Or is it that i am interpreting the statement wrong ?
Math Expert
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 36531
Followers: 7071

Kudos [?]: 92969 [0], given: 10541

Re: very hard - MGMAT [#permalink]

Show Tags

11 Jun 2013, 07:41
venkat18290 wrote:
(1)+(2) $$F_2=1.13F_1$$ and $$F_1=5V_1$$ --> $$F_2=1.13F_1=5.65V_1$$ --> from (2) $$\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?$$ --> substituting $$F_2$$ and $$F_1$$--> $$\frac{5.65V_1+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=\frac{6.6}{6}=1.1$$ --> in January total cost increased by 10%. Sufficient. (Actually no calculations are needed: stem and statement provide us with such relationships of 4 unknowns that 3 of them can be written with help of the 4th one and when we put them in fraction, which we want to calculate, then this last unknown is reduced, leaving us with numerical value).

Please check the bold part .. you have taken F2=1.13F1 and F1=5V1 . My doubt was how did you take F1=5V1 when combining both the statements .

IMO : Statement 2 was all about before price change in January , so the statement 2 does not give us any information about the price in January . So how can we even consider statement 2 ?

Or is it that i am interpreting the statement wrong ?

(2) says: before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X --> F(before)=5*V(before) --> $$F_1=5V_1$$ (F1 and V1 are costs before January and F2 and V2 are costs in January).
_________________
Manager
Joined: 09 Apr 2013
Posts: 214
Location: United States
Concentration: Finance, Economics
GMAT 1: 710 Q44 V44
GMAT 2: 740 Q48 V44
GPA: 3.1
WE: Sales (Mutual Funds and Brokerage)
Followers: 4

Kudos [?]: 77 [0], given: 40

Re: The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of [#permalink]

Show Tags

11 Jun 2013, 10:42
This question is confusing...

If the fixed cost truly is fixed, then B. should be sufficient.

If the fixed cost can change, then the variable cost should change not only based off of price change but off of total units as well..

But I see what the question is asking... my microecon training just doesn't like how it's phrased.
Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 7119
Location: Pune, India
Followers: 2130

Kudos [?]: 13629 [0], given: 222

Re: The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of [#permalink]

Show Tags

11 Jun 2013, 21:23
dave785 wrote:
This question is confusing...

If the fixed cost truly is fixed, then B. should be sufficient.

If the fixed cost can change, then the variable cost should change not only based off of price change but off of total units as well..

But I see what the question is asking... my microecon training just doesn't like how it's phrased.

In the question, it is implied that the fixed cost and variable cost are in per unit terms.
Total cost = Fixed Cost + Variable Cost
Item X's variable cost will be cost per unit so fixed cost will also be in terms of cost per unit.

As you noted, fixed cost per unit (e.g. leased land) changes with the number of units and variable cost changes with change in variable factors (e.g. cost of raw material) and might change with change in number of units too (e.g. say you need to make 110 units instead of 100 so you hire one extra person though you don't utilize him fully and hence variable cost increases for all the units). In any given month, both fixed cost per unit and variable cost per unit can change. It is definitely possible that one increases and the other decreases.

I don't think there is a problem in the question but probably a clearly mentioned 'fixed cost per unit' would have been better.
_________________

Karishma
Veritas Prep | GMAT Instructor
My Blog

Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for $199 Veritas Prep Reviews Senior Manager Joined: 02 Sep 2012 Posts: 259 Location: United States Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Finance GMAT Date: 07-25-2013 GPA: 3.83 WE: Architecture (Computer Hardware) Followers: 5 Kudos [?]: 179 [1] , given: 99 Re: The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of [#permalink] Show Tags 03 Jul 2013, 23:11 1 This post received KUDOS Hi Bunnel, Why we are just using c2/C1 for a percentage change in question ..Shouldn't we using c2-c1/c1 for percentage change!! Please clarify _________________ "Giving kudos" is a decent way to say "Thanks" and motivate contributors. Please use them, it won't cost you anything Re: The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of [#permalink] 03 Jul 2013, 23:11 Go to page 1 2 Next [ 34 posts ] Similar topics Replies Last post Similar Topics: Jeff bought a 100 items for a total of$50,000, what was the cost of 1 04 Jan 2017, 01:02
3 The total cost of a car rental at Company X is equal to a 6 09 Oct 2011, 00:24
23 The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of it 9 03 Oct 2011, 06:26
1 A clothing store acquired an item at a cost of x dollars and 10 06 Aug 2008, 11:12
2 The total cost of producing item Y is equal to the sum of 7 08 Dec 2007, 11:12
Display posts from previous: Sort by