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The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality

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The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality [#permalink] New post 06 Feb 2013, 20:56
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The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality in the body politic or for a constitutional form of government in which power lies more or less directly in the people’s hand. The former may be called social democracy and the later democratic government. The two differ widely, both in origin and in moral principle. Genetically considered, social democracy is something primitive, unintended, proper to communities where there is general competence and no marked personal eminence. There be no will aristocracy, no prestige, but instead an intelligent readiness to lend a hand and to do in unison whatever is done. In other words, there will be that most democratic of governments—no government at all. But when pressure of circumstances, danger, or inward strife makes recognized and prolonged guidance necessary to a social democracy, the form its government takes is that of a rudimentary monarchy established by election or general consent. A natural leader emerges and is instinctively obeyed. That leader may indeed be freely criticized and will not be screened by any pomp or traditional mystery; he or she will be easy to replace and every citizen will feel essentially his or her equal. Yet such a state is at the beginnings of monarchy and aristocracy.

Political democracy, on the other hand, is a late and artificial product. It arises by a gradual extension of aristocratic privileges, through rebellion against abuses, and in answer to restlessness on the people’s part. Its principle is not the absence of eminence, but the discovery that existing eminence is no longer genuine and representative. It may retain many vestiges of older and less democratic institutions. For under democratic governments the people have not created the state; they merely control it. Their suspicions and jealousies are quieted by assigning to them a voice, perhaps only a veto, in the administration. The people’s liberty consists not in their original responsibility for what exists, but merely in the faculty they have acquired of abolishing any detail that may distress or wound them, and of imposing any new measure, which, seen against the background of existing laws, may commend itself from time to time to their instinct and mind.

If we turn from origins to ideals, the contrast between social and political democracy is no less marked. Social democracy is a general ethical ideal, looking to human equality and brotherhood, and inconsistent, in its radical form, with such institutions as the family and hereditary property. Democratic government, on the contrary, is merely a means to an end, an expedient for the better and smoother government of certain states at certain junctures. It involves no special ideals of life; it is a question of policy, namely, whether the general interest will be better served by granting all people an equal voice in elections. For political democracy must necessarily be a government by deputy, and the questions actually submitted to the people can be only very large rough matters of general policy or of confidence in party leaders.
Questions:
1. The author suggests that the lack of “marked personal eminence” (line 11) is an important feature of a social democracy because
(A) such a society is also likely to contain the seeds of monarchy and aristocracy
(B) the absence of visible social leaders in such a society will probably impede the development of a political democracy
(C) social democracy represents a more sophisticated form of government than political democracy
(D) a society that lacks recognized leadership will be unable to accomplish its cultural objectives
(E) the absence of visible social leaders in such a community is likely to be accompanied by a spirit of cooperation

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: E


2. Which one of the following forms of government does the author say is most likely to evolve from a social democracy?
(A) monarchy
(B) government by deputy
(C) political democracy
(D) representative democracy
(E) constitutional democracy

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: A


3. The author of the passage suggests that a political democracy is likely to have been immediately preceded by which one of the following forms of social organization?
(A) a social democracy in which the spirit of participation has been diminished by the need to maintain internal security
(B) an aristocratic society in which government leaders have grown insensitive to people’s interests
(C) a primitive society that stresses the radical equality of all its members
(D) a state of utopian brotherhood in which no government exists
(E) a government based on general ethical ideals

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: B


4. According to the passage, “the people’s liberty” (line 42) in a political democracy is best defined as
(A) a willingness to accept responsibility for existing governmental forms
(B) a myth perpetrated by aristocratic leaders who refuse to grant political power to their subjects
(C) the ability to impose radically new measures when existing governmental forms are found to be inadequate
(D) the ability to secure concessions from a government that may retain many aristocratic characteristics
(E) the ability to elect leaders whom the people consider socially equal to themselves

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: D


5. According to the author of this passage, a social democracy would most likely adopt a formal system of government when
(A) recognized leadership becomes necessary to deal with social problems
(B) people lose the instinctive ability to cooperate in solving social problems
(C) a ruling monarch decides that it is necessary to grant political concessions to the people
(D) citizens no longer consider their social leaders essentially equal to themselves
(E) the human instinct to obey social leaders has been weakened by suspicion and jealousy

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: A


6. According to the passage, which one of the following is likely to occur as a result of the discovery that “existing eminence is no longer genuine and representative” (lines 35-36)?
(A) Aristocratic privileges will be strengthened, which will result in a further loss of the people’s liberty.
(B) The government will be forced to admit its responsibility for the inadequacy of existing political institutions.
(C) The remaining vestiges of less democratic institutions will be banished from government.
(D) People will gain political concessions from the government and a voice in the affairs of state.
(E) People will demand that political democracy conform to the ethical ideals of social democracy.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: D


7. It can be inferred from the passage that the practice of “government by deputy” (line 64) in a political democracy probably has its origins in
(A) aristocratic ideals
(B) human instincts
(C) a commitment to human equality
(D) a general ethical ideal
(E) a policy decision

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: E


8. Which one of the following statements, if true, would contradict the author’s notion of the characteristics of social democracy?
(A) Organized governmental systems tend to arise spontaneously, rather than in response to specific problem situations.
(B) The presence of an organized system of government stifles the expression of human equality and brotherhood.
(C) Social democracy represents a more primitive form of communal organization than political democracy.
(D) Prolonged and formal leadership may become necessary in a social democracy when problems arise that cannot be resolved by recourse to the general competence of the people.
(E) Although political democracy and social democracy are radically different forms of communal organization, it is possible for both to contain elements of monarchy.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: D


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Re: Tough RC: Social Democracy Vs Political Democracy [#permalink] New post 07 Feb 2013, 02:57
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Re: Tough RC: Social Democracy Vs Political Democracy [#permalink] New post 07 Feb 2013, 15:10
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The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality in the body politic or for a constitutional form of government in which power lies more or less directly in the people’s hand. The former may be called social democracy and the later democratic government. The two differ widely, both in origin and in moral principle. Genetically considered, social democracy is something primitive, unintended, proper to communities where there is general competence and no marked personal eminence. There be no will aristocracy, no prestige, but instead an intelligent readiness to lend a hand and to do in unison whatever is done. In other words, there will be that most democratic of governments—no government at all. But when pressure of circumstances, danger, or inward strife makes recognized and prolonged guidance necessary to a social democracy, the form its government takes is that of a rudimentary monarchy established by election or general consent. A natural leader emerges and is instinctively obeyed. That leader may indeed be freely criticized and will not be screened by any pomp or traditional mystery; he or she will be easy to replace and every citizen will feel essentially his or her equal. Yet such a state is at the beginnings of monarchy and aristocracy.

1. The author suggests that the lack of “marked personal eminence” (line 11) is an important feature of a social democracy because
(A) such a society is also likely to contain the seeds of monarchy and aristocracy
(B) the absence of visible social leaders in such a society will probably impede the development of a political democracy
(C) social democracy represents a more sophisticated form of government than political democracy
(D) a society that lacks recognized leadership will be unable to accomplish its cultural objectives
(E) the absence of visible social leaders in such a community is likely to be accompanied by a spirit of cooperation


2. Which one of the following forms of government does the author say is most likely to evolve from a social democracy?
(A) monarchy
(B) government by deputy
(C) political democracy
(D) representative democracy
(E) constitutional democracy

Political democracy, on the other hand, is a late and artificial product. It arises by a gradual extension of aristocratic privileges, through rebellion against abuses, and in answer to restlessness on the people’s part. Its principle is not the absence of eminence, but the discovery that existing eminence is no longer genuine and representative.


3. The author of the passage suggests that a political democracy is likely to have been immediately preceded by which one of the following forms of social organization?
(A) a social democracy in which the spirit of participation has been diminished by the need to maintain internal security
(B) an aristocratic society in which government leaders have grown insensitive to people’s interests
(C) a primitive society that stresses the radical equality of all its members
(D) a state of utopian brotherhood in which no government exists
(E) a government based on general ethical ideals

The people’s liberty consists not in their original responsibility for what exists, but merely in the faculty they have acquired of abolishing any detail that may distress or wound them, and of imposing any new measure, which, seen against the background of existing laws, may commend itself from time to time to their instinct and mind.


4. According to the passage, “the people’s liberty” (line 42) in a political democracy is best defined as
(A) a willingness to accept responsibility for existing governmental forms
(B) a myth perpetrated by aristocratic leaders who refuse to grant political power to their subjects
(C) the ability to impose radically new measures when existing governmental forms are found to be inadequate
(D) the ability to secure concessions from a government that may retain many aristocratic characteristics
(E) the ability to elect leaders whom the people consider socially equal to themselves

This was reallyyyyyyyyy tough

But when pressure of circumstances, danger, or inward strife makes recognized and prolonged guidance necessary to a social democracy, the form its government takes is that of a rudimentary monarchy established by election or general consent

5. According to the author of this passage, a social democracy would most likely adopt a formal system of government when
(A) recognized leadership becomes necessary to deal with social problems
(B) people lose the instinctive ability to cooperate in solving social problems
(C) a ruling monarch decides that it is necessary to grant political concessions to the people
(D) citizens no longer consider their social leaders essentially equal to themselves
(E) the human instinct to obey social leaders has been weakened by suspicion and jealousy

For under democratic governments the people have not created the state; they merely control it. Their suspicions and jealousies are quieted by assigning to them a voice, perhaps only a veto, in the administration. The people’s liberty consists not in their original responsibility for what exists, but merely in the faculty they have acquired of abolishing any detail that may distress or wound them, and of imposing any new measure, which, seen against the background of existing laws, may commend itself from time to time to their instinct and mind.

6. According to the passage, which one of the following is likely to occur as a result of the discovery that “existing eminence is no longer genuine and representative” (lines 35-36)?
(A) Aristocratic privileges will be strengthened, which will result in a further loss of the people’s liberty.
(B) The government will be forced to admit its responsibility for the inadequacy of existing political institutions.
(C) The remaining vestiges of less democratic institutions will be banished from government.
(D) People will gain political concessions from the government and a voice in the affairs of state.
(E) People will demand that political democracy conform to the ethical ideals of social democracy.

Democratic government, on the contrary, is merely a means to an end, an expedient for the better and smoother government of certain states at certain junctures. It involves no special ideals of life; it is a question of policy, namely, whether the general interest will be better served by granting all people an equal voice in elections. For political democracy must necessarily be a government by deputy, and the questions actually submitted to the people can be only very large rough matters of general policy or of confidence in party leaders.

7. It can be inferred from the passage that the practice of “government by deputy” (line 64) in a political democracy probably has its origins in
(A) aristocratic ideals
(B) human instincts
(C) a commitment to human equality
(D) a general ethical ideal
(E) a policy decision


8. Which one of the following statements, if true, would contradict the author’s notion of the characteristics of social democracy?
(A) Organized governmental systems tend to arise spontaneously, rather than in response to specific problem situations.
(B) The presence of an organized system of government stifles the expression of human equality and brotherhood.
(C) Social democracy represents a more primitive form of communal organization than political democracy.
(D) Prolonged and formal leadership may become necessary in a social democracy when problems arise that cannot be resolved by recourse to the general competence of the people.
(E) Although political democracy and social democracy are radically different forms of communal organization, it is possible for both to contain elements of monarchy.


This was a gues thanks to POE


It 'a shame that such passage has no really good answer from anyone :(

The people do not understand that the key in verbal is just RC. if you have a steady pace at RC you have more time for the rest AND tough SC /CR questions

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Re: Tough RC: Social Democracy Vs Political Democracy [#permalink] New post 07 Feb 2013, 19:27
Very good job Carcass in getting all answers correct! Your explanations are spot on. Kudos!
This was one of the toughest passages I have seen. How were you on the timing...
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Re: Tough RC: Social Democracy Vs Political Democracy [#permalink] New post 08 Feb 2013, 03:12
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well the bad news is I went over time (2 minutes or so) :( in particular the 4th was really an evil question

the good news is:
- a really tough passage
- convoluted language, if the case, even more than gmat (infact is a LSAT) see this link http://www.gmatninja.com/2012/11/12/lsa ... rehension/
- 8 questions (I have seen at most 5 question on OG and Gprep)


Takeaways:

- reading on a regular basis the economist, smithsonian, and the new yorker (plus other grammar books and idiom lists) is really helpful.
- read the passage one time very carefully but at the same time not so slow to impact you pace.

Thanks to you for the nice passage :)
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Re: Tough RC: Social Democracy Vs Political Democracy [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2013, 23:35
I have doubts on three questions and incidentally I marked A for all and correct as given is D , for 4th 6th and 8th

4th According to the passage, “the people’s liberty” (line 42) in a political democracy is best defined as
(A) a willingness to accept responsibility for existing governmental forms
(B) a myth perpetrated by aristocratic leaders who refuse to grant political power to their subjects
(C) the ability to impose radically new measures when existing governmental forms are found to be inadequate
(D) the ability to secure concessions from a government that may retain many aristocratic characteristics
(E) the ability to elect leaders whom the people consider socially equal to themselves

For under democratic governments the people have not created the state; they merely control it. Their suspicions and jealousies are quieted by assigning to them a voice, perhaps only a veto, in the administration. The people’s liberty consists not in their original responsibility for what exists, but merely in the faculty they have acquired of abolishing any detail that may distress or wound them, and of imposing any new measure, which, seen against the background of existing laws, may commend itself from time to time to their instinct and mind.

where does concessions come into picture its all about responsbility
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Re: Tough RC: Social Democracy Vs Political Democracy [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2013, 23:38
6. According to the passage, which one of the following is likely to occur as a result of the discovery that “existing eminence is no longer genuine and representative” (lines 35-36)?
(A) Aristocratic privileges will be strengthened, which will result in a further loss of the people’s liberty.
(B) The government will be forced to admit its responsibility for the inadequacy of existing political institutions.
(C) The remaining vestiges of less democratic institutions will be banished from government.
(D) People will gain political concessions from the government and a voice in the affairs of state.
(E) People will demand that political democracy conform to the ethical ideals of social democracy.

Political democracy, on the other hand, is a late and artificial product. It arises by a gradual extension of aristocratic privileges, through rebellion against abuses, and in answer to restlessness on the people’s part. Its principle is not the absence of eminence, but the discovery that existing eminence is no longer genuine and representative. It may retain many vestiges of older and less democratic institutions.

Extension of aristocratic privileges as in A
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Re: Tough RC: Social Democracy Vs Political Democracy [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2013, 23:41
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8. Which one of the following statements, if true, would contradict the author’s notion of the characteristics of social democracy?
(A) Organized governmental systems tend to arise spontaneously, rather than in response to specific problem situations.
(B) The presence of an organized system of government stifles the expression of human equality and brotherhood.
(C) Social democracy represents a more primitive form of communal organization than political democracy.
(D) Prolonged and formal leadership may become necessary in a social democracy when problems arise that cannot be resolved by recourse to the general competence of the people.
(E) Although political democracy and social democracy are radically different forms of communal organization, it is possible for both to contain elements of monarchy.

Genetically considered, social democracy is something primitive, unintended, proper to communities where there is general competence and no marked personal eminence. There be no will aristocracy, no prestige, but instead an intelligent readiness to lend a hand and to do in unison whatever is done. In other words, there will be that most democratic of governments—no government at all. But when pressure of circumstances, danger, or inward strife makes recognized and prolonged guidance necessary to a social democracy, the form its government takes is that of a rudimentary monarchy established by election or general consent.

all characterictics of social democracy are given in these lines. I solved this question as except question. D is directly mentioned as authors view point. Only A is an exception which can contradict author because he says such organised forms will come in response to problems only
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Re: Tough RC: Social Democracy Vs Political Democracy [#permalink] New post 11 Feb 2013, 02:59
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Re: Tough RC: Social Democracy Vs Political Democracy [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2013, 02:34
PUNEETSCHDV wrote:
8. Which one of the following statements, if true, would contradict the author’s notion of the characteristics of social democracy?
(A) Organized governmental systems tend to arise spontaneously, rather than in response to specific problem situations.
(B) The presence of an organized system of government stifles the expression of human equality and brotherhood.
(C) Social democracy represents a more primitive form of communal organization than political democracy.
(D) Prolonged and formal leadership may become necessary in a social democracy when problems arise that cannot be resolved by recourse to the general competence of the people.
(E) Although political democracy and social democracy are radically different forms of communal organization, it is possible for both to contain elements of monarchy.

Genetically considered, social democracy is something primitive, unintended, proper to communities where there is general competence and no marked personal eminence. There be no will aristocracy, no prestige, but instead an intelligent readiness to lend a hand and to do in unison whatever is done. In other words, there will be that most democratic of governments—no government at all. But when pressure of circumstances, danger, or inward strife makes recognized and prolonged guidance necessary to a social democracy, the form its government takes is that of a rudimentary monarchy established by election or general consent.

all characterictics of social democracy are given in these lines. I solved this question as except question. D is directly mentioned as authors view point. Only A is an exception which can contradict author because he says such organised forms will come in response to problems only


Agree ... D is mentioned in the passage ...
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Re: The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality [#permalink] New post 20 Jun 2013, 11:01
My Attempt: 5/8 (considering Q8 as A and not D as in OA which i think is mistaken) in 19mins. Also the line numbers are missing. I lost a min or two finding the correct line fragment as in question stem from a lengthy passage. :cry:

Hi Carcass/Prapon,

I think the answer to question#8 should be A. :o Option D is kinda explicitly mentioned in the passage and question stem asks whats contradicting to author point of views. I would like to hear some expert view on this or a OE would be good. :idea: :wink:

Also would like to know the source of the passage (i.e. if this thread is alive :lol: )
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Re: The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality [#permalink] New post 03 Jul 2013, 21:50
EACCCDCE. What is the OA, please?
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Re: The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality [#permalink] New post 16 Jul 2014, 22:52
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality [#permalink] New post 06 Sep 2014, 20:19
Got 6/8 in 15 mins but please explain 4 and 8

4. According to the passage, “the people’s liberty” (line 42) in a political democracy is best defined as
(A) a willingness to accept responsibility for existing governmental forms
(B) a myth perpetrated by aristocratic leaders who refuse to grant political power to their subjects
(C) the ability to impose radically new measures when existing governmental forms are found to be inadequate
(D) the ability to secure concessions from a government that may retain many aristocratic characteristics
(E) the ability to elect leaders whom the people consider socially equal to themselves

The people’s liberty consists not in their original responsibility for what exists, but merely in the faculty they have acquired of abolishing any detail that may distress or wound them, and of imposing any new measure, which, seen against the background of existing laws, may commend itself from time to time to their instinct and mind.

The bold portion clearly states option C. I don't get what is the logic behind D.


8. Which one of the following statements, if true, would contradict the author’s notion of the characteristics of social democracy?
(A) Organized governmental systems tend to arise spontaneously, rather than in response to specific problem situations.
(B) The presence of an organized system of government stifles the expression of human equality and brotherhood.
(C) Social democracy represents a more primitive form of communal organization than political democracy.
(D) Prolonged and formal leadership may become necessary in a social democracy when problems arise that cannot be resolved by recourse to the general competence of the people.
(E) Although political democracy and social democracy are radically different forms of communal organization, it is possible for both to contain elements of monarchy.

But when pressure of circumstances, danger, or inward strife makes recognized and prolonged guidance necessary to a social democracy, the form its government takes is that of a rudimentary monarchy established by election or general consent. A natural leader emerges and is instinctively obeyed. That leader may indeed be freely criticized and will not be screened by any pomp or traditional mystery

This clearly complies with (D) and is not contradictory. However (A) is definitely contradictory to social democracy as the passage says Organized governmental systems will not arise spontaneously but only when specific situation arises.

@carcass - Please explain where am I going wrong in understanding the meaning.
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Re: The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality [#permalink] New post 06 Oct 2014, 02:03
I went for A too (for the 8th question). Can anyone please explain?
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Re: The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality [#permalink] New post 07 Oct 2014, 08:21
PrashantPonde & carcass : its a very good passage ..cheers & kudos to you guys.
i got 7/8 (marked 4th as C).. however i took too much time , around 20min.
Can you please suggest how can i improve on my timings?
Re: The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality   [#permalink] 07 Oct 2014, 08:21
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Ok, this is word problem #436 in the OG. Equal amounts of Jennif102 3 30 Oct 2005, 19:50
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The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality

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