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The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a

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The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink] New post 09 Oct 2012, 01:50
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The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the enviroment in ways harmful to their habitats.

a) A phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
b) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
c) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels
d) which most scientists agree on as phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
e) which most scientsts agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, [#permalink] New post 09 Oct 2012, 01:51
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, [#permalink] New post 09 Oct 2012, 02:49
The direct cause of global warming is "the burning of fossil fuels" and not "fossil fuels" or "human beings". The only answer choice which preserves this meaning is C.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, [#permalink] New post 09 Oct 2012, 02:55
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souvik101990 wrote:
The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the enviroment in ways harmful to their habitats.

a) A phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
b) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
c) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings's burning of fossil fuels -Correct Answer
d) which most scientists agree on as phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
e) which most scientsts agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings


We need a passive voice here.

the phenomenon is caused by an "act " not by substance or human beings. Only C maintains the correct meaning.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink] New post 15 Oct 2012, 02:50
Though we know OA is C, i still can't figure out what kind of structure of
'a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by...' ?
It appears 'that most scientists agree' is non-essential in this structure and therefore meaning of the sentence
is altered from the original one. Can somebody explain ?

Also, pls clarify what the differences among below are:

1. ....global warming, a phenomenon that most scientsts agree is caused by...
2. ....global warming, a phenomenon that most scientsts agree to be caused by...
3. ....global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree that it is caused by....
4. ...global warming, a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by... (original sentence)

Tks!
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink] New post 15 Oct 2012, 03:10
sandeep86 wrote:
Though we know OA is C, i still can't figure out what kind of structure of
'a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by...' ?
It appears 'that most scientists agree' is non-essential in this structure and therefore meaning of the sentence
is altered from the original one. Can somebody explain ?

Also, pls clarify what the differences among below are:

1. ....global warming, a phenomenon that most scientsts agree is caused by...
2. ....global warming, a phenomenon that most scientsts agree to be caused by...
3. ....global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree that it is caused by....
4. ...global warming, a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by... (original sentence)

Tks!


Check for explanation below.
the-world-wildlife-fund-has-declared-that-global-warming-a-103470.html?hilit=The%20world%20wildlife%20fund%20has%20declared%20that%20global%20warming#p1126689
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink] New post 15 Oct 2012, 03:36
Tks mate. I've read the link, but it doesn't get me through my doubt,
my question is about grammar issue (not meaning).

Why bother to put 'that most scientists agree' in C while all we can say is
'a phenomenon (that most scientists agree) is caused by....', most scientists
agree what ?? it's not a complete clause.

Does 'a phenomenon that most scientist agree to be caused by...' make more sense
and grammatically correct ?

Meaning wise, i agree C is the best, but grammatically i doubt about it. What i am missing ?
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink] New post 15 Oct 2012, 04:04
sandeep86 wrote:
Tks mate. I've read the link, but it doesn't get me through my doubt,
my question is about grammar issue (not meaning).

Why bother to put 'that most scientists agree' in C while all we can say is
'a phenomenon (that most scientists agree) is caused by....', most scientists
agree what ?? it's not a complete clause.

Does 'a phenomenon that most scientist agree to be caused by...' make more sense
and grammatically correct ?

Meaning wise, i agree C is the best, but grammatically i doubt about it. What i am missing ?


Choice C is grammatically correct. "that most scientists agree" is a modifier used to describe the phenomenon and it is correctly placed next to the noun it describes.

As the first line of Manhattan Sc says -Ideal answer is not the right answer. We need to pick the best among the options given.

Going by this ideology - clause after "caused by" is correct only in C. Then why bother about the sentence formation before "caused by".

2 points to note here -

1. the sentence structure in C might sound awkward but isn't incorrect
2. we should always follow the rules in order while eliminating answers - Grammar first - then meaning -then concision

concision - third round of elimination is only required if we have more than one choice here

hope this helps.
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Last edited by yashii9 on 15 Oct 2012, 22:49, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink] New post 15 Oct 2012, 08:33
souvik101990 wrote:
The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the enviroment in ways harmful to their habitats.

a) A phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
b) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
c) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels
d) which most scientists agree on as phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
e) which most scientsts agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings



The correct answer is C;
Is this really a 700+ question??
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink] New post 15 Oct 2012, 08:40
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Thanks yashii9.
Quote:
1. there sentence structure in C might sound awkward but isn't incorrect
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Can you articulate what make sentence structure in C sound awkward?

Quote:
2. we should always follow the rules in order while eliminating answers - Grammar first - then meaning -then concision

Don't we go by reverse order, namely - meaning first - then grammar, in this case to make POE and find the answer ?



Also, can you check my previous question, what are the differences among below strutures
and whether all of them are correct:

1. The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon that most scientsts agree is caused by...
2. The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon that most scientsts agree to be caused by...
3. The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree that it is caused by....
4. The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by...
(original sentence)

I am still not convinced that 'The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming,
a phenomenon that most scientsts agree is caused by...' in C is grammatically correct.

Any comments/explanations from others are appreciated.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink] New post 15 Oct 2012, 22:59
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Sandeep - you obviously can not work on grammar unless you understand the meaning of the sentence. (logically how will you know which tense to stick to..)

Meaning refers to - checking any changes in the original meaning of the statement. It should not happen that Grammar has been corrected but the original intent of the statement has been altered. You will be able to search several questions on this forum to help clear this point. :)

I would suggest you go through modifiers chapter from Manhattan SC before solving these questions. That should help.

It's not as difficult a question as it looks. :)
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink] New post 17 Oct 2012, 01:16
Quote:
Sandeep - you obviously can not work on grammar unless you understand the meaning of the sentence. (logically how will you know which tense to stick to..)

Meaning refers to - checking any changes in the original meaning of the statement. It should not happen that Grammar has been corrected but the original intent of the statement has been altered. You will be able to search several questions on this forum to help clear this point.

I would suggest you go through modifiers chapter from Manhattan SC before solving these questions. That should help.

It's not as difficult a question as it looks.


I am feeling i ask about chicken and you keep telling me about duck :-D
Anyway, i found one helpful post (in red) in this forum. One guy posted the same question like mine and was replied as below:

Quote:
Minheequang wrote:

city92 wrote:
You can all get the answer and explanation from OG, but one thing is not clear to me. I would appreciate if someone can explain:

if you look at the choice c:
C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels.

'is caused' make this a full clause isn't it?
a phenomenon "that most scientists agree" is caused by human...

If inserted into the main setnese above, it should be connected by the conjuncion because it is a independent clause, otherwise it looks like this:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....


Obviously, since the answer is C, I suppose i should have interpreted it as
a phenomenon that "most scientists agree" is caused by human...

Then, this will make better sense in main sentense as whole:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon that is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....

If so, what is the grammatical function(or name) for this, yet another clause "most scientists agree" in between? (another full clause with no conjunction)

I think it's simple, mate
c) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings's burning of fossil fuels -->that here is a relative pronoun modifies for a phenomenon

As if we commonly think, it can be written as: a phenomenon that is caused by human .... where that here modifies for a phenomenon and stands at the subject position of the new clause

But this clause offered by the choice (C) here is written as: a phenomenon that most scientist agree is caused ... where a phenomenon here is still modified by that but it plays a role of an object in the clause modifying for it, and therefore, most scientists will be the subject of such clause
More clearly, we can re-write it as: most scientist agree global warming (a phenomenon) is caused by human being's burning of fossil fuels --> you can see the object role of a phenomenon, or global warming, in this re-written clause
Such structure is still called a clause modifying for a Noun, and they are connected by a relative pronoun, whatsoever the role of such Noun (Subject or Object) in the modifying clause. Maybe I can't remember its official name, but as I mentioned, lets simply call Noun-modifying clause


To this end, i am sure relative pronouns or modifiers as explained above are no strangers at all to us.
What make this OG question awkward is the way GMAC accept 'a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by'.
Because this phrase grammatically is correct, but its meaning has been altered from intended meaning of original sentence,
which mentioned as 'a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by .

Meaning of 'a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by' itself sounds very odd, let alone the meaning
is different from original intended meaning. As rule of thump, this normally is not accepted by GMAC.

Originally i didnt choose C because of this issue.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink] New post 17 Oct 2012, 02:09
sandeep86 wrote:
I am feeling i ask about chicken and you keep telling me about duck :-D
Anyway, i found one helpful post (in red) in this forum. One guy posted the same question like mine and was replied as below:



GMAT sentence correction is less about English but more about Logic. Anyway the good thing is, you finally got this one. :)
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink] New post 17 Oct 2012, 02:56
Let us split it

The world wildlife fund has declared
that global warming,
a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the enviroment in ways harmful to their habitats.



error:
a phenomenon(that)most scientsts- that can not be ommited as it is going to work as a subject
to be caused - wrong



a) A phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
b) a phenomenon most scientists agree
that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
it should be of the format noun+ noun modifier- I can't craete appositive with
verb


c) a phenomenon
that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels
noun+noun modfier
d) which most scientists agree on as phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
meaning modified , its the fossil not human beings, also we non essential which should be avoided here
e) which most scientsts agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings
meaning modified , its a phenomenon - no issue on that , only scientists differ on reason
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink] New post 18 Oct 2012, 05:33
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A- This sentence is saying that the human beings are in the fossil fuels, and because they are in the fossil fuels global warming occurs.
B- The presence of ‘that’ is unnecessary. It is clear that the phenomenon referred to is global warming. ‘Burned’ is also in the past tense, which is incorrect. Global warming is a current event. It should read either WAS caused with BURNED or IS caused with BURNING (prefereably the later because of the phenomenom exists today)
C- Correct
D- This answer changes the meaning slightly to say that scientists agree that global warming is a phenomenon. The original sentence establishes this as fact, but the debate is around the cause. It also put the emphasis on the specific humans who do the burning which takes away from the intention of the sentence which is to associate the activity of humans with global warming.
E- Again, this sentence suggests that scientists agree that global warming is a phenomenon.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink] New post 29 Nov 2012, 01:36
Hi Experts,

I picked up C earlier because it clearly indicates the intended meaning. Later I noticed missing comma(,) in the end. I would have totally ignored the missing comma but I saw that other choices where playing around with it. I made me think the importance of comma. Later I realized the in order for 'C' to correct their should be a comma in the end of the choice.

I know people have suggested earlier that GMAT doesn't test on comma but in this case other choices had comma and therefore made me ponder over the use of comma.

Although 'C' clearly shows the intended meaning but I still feel it is not a good question because of above stated reason.

Can the experts express their thoughts?

thanks,

-K
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink] New post 23 Sep 2013, 11:07
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a   [#permalink] 23 Sep 2013, 11:07
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