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# There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud

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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2012, 01:43
i pick D. there are 2 methods to build solid walls using mud and clay 1 is to form....blah ...blah..and to lay ...blah blah blah
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22 Jul 2012, 08:45
mlsbbe wrote:
Hi, all. Please look at the following questions. I am having problems with the answer

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks our of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or
sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid.

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

OA: D

Why is 'D' the answer? Doesn't the 'and' after the comma create a sentence fragment as it lacks a subject and a verb?

Strike 1 => Verb Tense => There are several ways => C & E out
Strike 2 => Parallelism => A ,B
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23 Jul 2012, 21:50
The simple rule of coordinate conjunctions is that they join
1. two words ; e.g.: ‘Jack and Jill’ went up the hill
2. two phrases: e.g. : Jack wants ‘to eat the cake and(to) keep it too’, and
3. two ICs. E.g:Jack wants to play football with a hockey ball and Jill wants to play basketball with a hockey ball

The topic in context belongs to the second category of joining two phrases – ‘to form’ the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, ‘to lay’ them – to form and to lay – two infinitive phrases
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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2012, 05:30
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

(A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid
(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them
(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they were laid
(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them
(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay,
which, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, were laid

After a while . Thanks for discussion
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Last edited by carcass on 26 Sep 2012, 15:49, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2012, 05:38
I think it is a tussle b/w C and E.. and I think C is the answer
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2012, 07:47
carcass wrote:
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

(A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid
(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them
(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they were laid
(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them
(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay,
which, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, were laid

After a while . Thanks for discussion

Correct one should be [D], as it keeps the passive voice intact and parallels the to-form with to- lay!!!

In {A} and {B} has been - the forming of / forming of - - Incorrect Usage !!!
{C} having bricks not parallel with "they were laid"
{E} Incorrect usage of which and wrong parallelism in verbs were - with incorrect modifier in between.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2012, 08:34
This is a typical exaomple of X , and Y parallelism. Where X and Y are clauses and should be parallel

carcass wrote:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

(A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid participle paralleled with pronoun
(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them participle paralleled with infinitive
(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they were laid participle paralleled with pronoun/color]
(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them [color=#ff0000]correct. infinitive parallele with infinitive

(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay,
which, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, were laid which refers to mud or clay, not intended

After a while . Thanks for discussion
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2012, 08:35
This is a typical exaomple of X , and Y parallelism. Where X and Y are clauses and should be parallel

carcass wrote:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

(A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid participle paralleled with pronoun
(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them participle paralleled with infinitive
(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they were laid participle paralleled with pronoun
(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them correct. infinitive parallele with infinitive
(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay,
which, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, were laid which refers to mud or clay, not intended

After a while . Thanks for discussion

Last edited by adineo on 26 Sep 2012, 11:17, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2012, 11:10
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becasue of parallelism

used methods has been to form........,to lay them.
In all other options this parallel construction is missing.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2012, 15:50
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2012, 04:55
D
Parallelism to form and to lay
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Re: OG12 - SC#11- Help [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2012, 16:24
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There's a lot of fluff in this original sentence.

BUT - if you "cut the fluff" - it's a lot easier to read. You should read the sentence as:

"There are several ways to build solid walls using [method1], but the most extensively used method has been [method2], and [method3].

(A) is wrong because method1 cannot be "the forming" - the extraneous "the" needs to be removed. "Forming" in (B) is ok - but "forming" is not consistent with "to lay them"

Only in (D) is "to form" consistent with "to lay" -see video explanation for more details:

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Re: OG12 - SC#11- Help [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2012, 05:35

The moment you look at the answer choices, you narrow down to the two choices - B and D.
B - it is not the right answer because it is not parallel.
D - it is the right answer.

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Re: OG12 - SC#11- Help [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 23:01
Rightaway the usage of the infinitive version "to form", IMO makes D a more attractive option compared to other options.
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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2013, 00:28
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

(A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid
(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them
(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they were laid
(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them
(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay,
which, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, were laid

Whats wrong with has been the forming of bricks

Last edited by mun23 on 02 Apr 2013, 01:59, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2013, 23:18
D is correct.
Parallelism: to form..............,and,............ to lay..........
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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01 May 2013, 22:04
All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

Please check and follow the Guidelines for Posting in Verbal GMAT forum before posting anything.
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24 Aug 2013, 07:20
daagh wrote:
The simple rule of coordinate conjunctions is that they join
1. two words ; e.g.: ‘Jack and Jill’ went up the hill
2. two phrases: e.g. : Jack wants ‘to eat the cake and(to) keep it too’, and
3. two ICs. E.g:Jack wants to play football with a hockey ball and Jill wants to play basketball with a hockey ball

The topic in context belongs to the second category of joining two phrases – ‘to form’ the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, ‘to lay’ them – to form and to lay – two infinitive phrases

Hi daagh,

One query pertains to the concepts you explained:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just
mud or clay
, but the most extensively used method
has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay
,
and,after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

Three Independent Clauses Marked above in GREEN. Here "AND" is connecting clauses(2,3).

Clause2: Subject - method Verb-has been
Clause3: Subject - They Verb - are laid

My query is how on earth we can see "AND" as a parallel marker in this question when it connects two independent clauses.

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2013, 08:41
Although I did this question correct, I have a doubt on the usage of COMMA. The question is as follow:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

My question is that in choice D, what is the role of the comma after "bricks". I can understand that the the red part is giving extra info about time, but I really did not understand the comma before "and". It seemed to me the sentence structure like this:

IC, Fanboys (But in this case) IC, AND to Verb

to verb // to verb seems OK, but what about the comma before and? The list is: to form X, and to lay Y
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2013, 04:31
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mstfkvs wrote:
Although I did this question correct, I have a doubt on the usage of COMMA. The question is as follow:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

My question is that in choice D, what is the role of the comma after "bricks". I can understand that the the red part is giving extra info about time, but I really did not understand the comma before "and". It seemed to me the sentence structure like this:

IC, Fanboys (But in this case) IC, AND to Verb

to verb // to verb seems OK, but what about the comma before and? The list is: to form X, and to lay Y

Hi Mustafa,

Let us see how the sentence looks when Option D is used.

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them in the wall in mud mortar.

Let us now look at the structure of this sentence.

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay,
• but the most extensively used method has been
o to form the
 mud or
 clay
o into bricks, and
o , after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them in the wall in mud mortar.

As you can see, the “and” in this sentence is connecting two entities in a list.

The entities are:
a. To form the mud or clay into bricks.
b. To lay them in the wall in mud mortar.

As you can see, the entities in the list are a bit longer than usual. Moreover, the first entity has another list embedded in it (mud or clay). So a comma is put before the “and” for a breathing pause.

So the comma before "and" is only to help us in identifying the main list.

Note that the presence of a “comma + and” in a sentence doesn’t necessarily indicate that two or more Independent Clauses are connected. (The above sentence, for instance)

However, if two or more Independent Clauses are present in a sentence, they are always connected by “comma + FANBOYS”.

Hope this helps

Regards,
Krishna
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud   [#permalink] 15 Nov 2013, 04:31

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