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Top college graduates are having more difficulty

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Re: CR: Top College Students [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2011, 05:38
agree with A
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Re: CR: Top College Students [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2011, 10:22
clearly A
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Re: CR: Top College Students [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2011, 10:59
A
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Re: CR: Top College Students [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2011, 16:26
A is the answer
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Re: CR: Top College Students [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2011, 21:27
Good one.
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CR notes
http://gmatclub.com/forum/massive-collection-of-verbal-questions-sc-rc-and-cr-106195.html#p832142
http://gmatclub.com/forum/1001-ds-questions-file-106193.html#p832133
http://gmatclub.com/forum/gmat-prep-critical-reasoning-collection-106783.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html?hilit=chineseburned

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Re: CR: Top College Students [#permalink] New post 22 Aug 2011, 21:14
A is not the correct assumption . current 50% graduates includes talented and non talented one, so if the rules are made tough then talented will only be able to gain college graduates.
ans A mentions that all college graduates of today are not achievers which weakens the argument . so it is not the assumption, instead B is the correct assumption which mentions that too many graduates have made college graduates to be incompetent.
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Re: CR: Top College Students [#permalink] New post 26 Aug 2011, 18:23
Premise: Today’s employers are less impressed with the honors degree.
Premise: Twenty years ago no more than 10 percent of a given class graduated with honors.
Premise : Today, however, because of grade inflation, the honors degree goes to more than 50 percent of a graduating class.
Conclusion: Therefore, to restore confidence in the degrees they award, colleges must take steps to control grade inflation.
Does the conclusion follow logically from premises?
Let’s start with the conclusion. It mentions restoration of confidence in the degrees awarded today. But wait a minute, in the premises the author talks about honours degrees. It means grade inflation is not necessarily restricted to honours degrees alone, but could plague different categories of degree awarded. So the category of degree should have no effect on the conclusion.

On the basis of the premises alone we cannot infer that there are more honours degrees today than there were yesterday [10 percent of a given class vs. more than 50 percent of a graduating class]. So the number of honour degrees should have no effect on the conclusion.

Conclusion already states colleges must take steps to control grade inflation to restore confidence in the degrees awarded. Extracted results,
1) there is grade inflation
2)there is a loss of confidence
We have found out now it is not because of the difference in the number of honours degrees, or any other degrees, but rather a difference in something that is related to confidence - achievement level.

"Today’s students are not higher achievers than the students of twenty years ago" is the last straw that will break the camel’s back. Notice however while it is the tipping point, it is not necessarily something on which this argument depends.
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Re: CR: Top College Students [#permalink] New post 03 Sep 2011, 22:26
It's A.
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Re: CR: Top College Students [#permalink] New post 15 Sep 2011, 04:22
B - is opposite answer.
C - Changes the intent of the employers

A is correct..
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Re: CR: Top College Students [#permalink] New post 15 Sep 2011, 22:13
b
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Re: CR: Top College Students [#permalink] New post 15 Sep 2011, 23:03
B for me.
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Re: CR: Top College Students [#permalink] New post 02 Nov 2011, 06:51
Clear A
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Re: CR: Top College Students [#permalink] New post 02 Nov 2011, 08:29
A IMO
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Re: CR: Top College Students [#permalink] New post 02 Nov 2011, 11:15
+1 for A
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Re: Top college graduates are having more difficulty [#permalink] New post 20 Aug 2012, 08:03
x97agarwal wrote:
Top college graduates are having more difficulty demonstrating their superiority to prospective employers than did the top students of twenty years ago when an honors degree was distinction enough. Today’s employers are less impressed with the honors degree. Twenty years ago no more than 10 percent of a given class graduated with honors. Today, however, because of grade inflation, the honors degree goes to more than 50 percent of a graduating class. Therefore, to restore confidence in the degrees they award, colleges must take steps to control grade inflation.

Which one of the following is an assumption that, if true, would support the conclusion in the passage?

(A) Today’s students are not higher achievers than the students of twenty years ago.
(B) Awarding too many honors degrees causes colleges to inflate grades.
(C) Today’s employers rely on honors ranking in making their hiring decisions.
(D) It is not easy for students with low grades to obtain jobs.
(E) Colleges must make employers aware of the criteria used to determine who receives an honors degree


A may be the official answer, but I disagree. E is better.

Argument structure:
C: "to restore confidence in the degrees they award, colleges must take steps to control grade inflation"
P: "Today’s employers are less impressed with the honors degree"
P: the % graduating with honors is higher today than it was in the past

First of all, the entire argument is about the only method of restoring confidence. That students are having a hard time is ancillary to the conclusion. It might tell us why we want to restore confidence, but this does not factor into the truth of the statement in the conclusion, that if you want to restore confidence in honors degrees, you must control grade inflation. Negating the reason for wanting to restore confidence doesn't change whether controlling grade inflation is the only way. Specifically, even if students are higher achievers today, controlling grade inflation still may be the only way to restore confidence. This may hurt students who deserve the honor, but we are not philanthropists when we are answering these questions - we are only worried about the effect on the argument, which means the effect on the conclusion.

Furthermore, ignoring the point above, answer A isn't even relevant to the first sentence. The argument discusses graduates having difficulty "demonstrating their superiority" to employers. This is ambiguous as superiority needs context. Is it in relation to those who have graduated 20 years ago, those who are currently graduating, or those who are currently employed? If it is in relation to those who have graduated 20 years ago, then A may have some connection to the argument, because lowering grades would negate the ability for some of the current graduates to demonstrate their superiority over those who graduated 20 years ago. However, in my opinion, the most likely meaning is superiority compared to other current job applicants. This seems to be the smallest assumption required to understand the argument and its relation to A, as there are probably very few graduates from 20 years ago looking for jobs now and there are probably positions open that need to be filled (unlikely that a company is considering replacing a current employee if a recent graduate looks superior). Even if students are achieving higher than students in the past, it is irrelevant because we are concerned about the ability of "top" students to demonstrate superiority to those who are currently graduating. Thus, the conclusion that "colleges must take steps to control grade inflation" as the only means of "restoring confidence" is not even weakened by the negation of A.

How does E matter? It doesn't, but it is the closest to an assumption. Employers do not need to know the specific criteria, but they need to know that it has changed. If employers are not aware of the changes in grading policy, how can confidence, which is a subjective feeling of employers, be restored? And, even assuming that the difficulty demonstrating superiority that is experienced by top graduates is relevant, controlling grade inflation cannot help students if employers still think that 50% of students achieve honor roll designation. There needs to be a change in their minds, and if we take "make employers aware of the criteria used to determine who receives an honors degree" to mean that employers are being notified that honors degrees are harder to acquire, then it is the assumption.

Source?

TL;DR: The argument is about the only way to change the confidence level of employers and about top students demonstrating superiority (likely over other recent graduates). These have nothing to do with A.
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Re: Top college graduates are having more difficulty [#permalink] New post 20 Aug 2012, 09:14
Assumption question! We're looking for an unstated premise that supports the premise.
The conclusion is that colleges must control grade inflation to restore confidence in degrees they award. Therefore, it is assuming that grade inflation is the ONLY reason that so many students are getting honors degrees.

a) Correct! This gets rid of an alternative reason for why so many students are getting honros degrees.
b) The premise states that inflation --> too many honors degrees, not the other way around.
c) out of scope
d) out of scope
e) what? no. no relation to conclusion.
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Re: Top college graduates are having more difficulty [#permalink] New post 21 Aug 2012, 01:01
Expert's post
mmagyar wrote:
x97agarwal wrote:
Top college graduates are having more difficulty demonstrating their superiority to prospective employers than did the top students of twenty years ago when an honors degree was distinction enough. Today’s employers are less impressed with the honors degree. Twenty years ago no more than 10 percent of a given class graduated with honors. Today, however, because of grade inflation, the honors degree goes to more than 50 percent of a graduating class. Therefore, to restore confidence in the degrees they award, colleges must take steps to control grade inflation.

Which one of the following is an assumption that, if true, would support the conclusion in the passage?

(A) Today’s students are not higher achievers than the students of twenty years ago.
(B) Awarding too many honors degrees causes colleges to inflate grades.
(C) Today’s employers rely on honors ranking in making their hiring decisions.
(D) It is not easy for students with low grades to obtain jobs.
(E) Colleges must make employers aware of the criteria used to determine who receives an honors degree


A may be the official answer, but I disagree. E is better.

Argument structure:
C: "to restore confidence in the degrees they award, colleges must take steps to control grade inflation"
P: "Today’s employers are less impressed with the honors degree"
P: the % graduating with honors is higher today than it was in the past

First of all, the entire argument is about the only method of restoring confidence. That students are having a hard time is ancillary to the conclusion. It might tell us why we want to restore confidence, but this does not factor into the truth of the statement in the conclusion, that if you want to restore confidence in honors degrees, you must control grade inflation. Negating the reason for wanting to restore confidence doesn't change whether controlling grade inflation is the only way. Specifically, even if students are higher achievers today, controlling grade inflation still may be the only way to restore confidence. This may hurt students who deserve the honor, but we are not philanthropists when we are answering these questions - we are only worried about the effect on the argument, which means the effect on the conclusion.

Furthermore, ignoring the point above, answer A isn't even relevant to the first sentence. The argument discusses graduates having difficulty "demonstrating their superiority" to employers. This is ambiguous as superiority needs context. Is it in relation to those who have graduated 20 years ago, those who are currently graduating, or those who are currently employed? If it is in relation to those who have graduated 20 years ago, then A may have some connection to the argument, because lowering grades would negate the ability for some of the current graduates to demonstrate their superiority over those who graduated 20 years ago. However, in my opinion, the most likely meaning is superiority compared to other current job applicants. This seems to be the smallest assumption required to understand the argument and its relation to A, as there are probably very few graduates from 20 years ago looking for jobs now and there are probably positions open that need to be filled (unlikely that a company is considering replacing a current employee if a recent graduate looks superior). Even if students are achieving higher than students in the past, it is irrelevant because we are concerned about the ability of "top" students to demonstrate superiority to those who are currently graduating. Thus, the conclusion that "colleges must take steps to control grade inflation" as the only means of "restoring confidence" is not even weakened by the negation of A.

How does E matter? It doesn't, but it is the closest to an assumption. Employers do not need to know the specific criteria, but they need to know that it has changed. If employers are not aware of the changes in grading policy, how can confidence, which is a subjective feeling of employers, be restored? And, even assuming that the difficulty demonstrating superiority that is experienced by top graduates is relevant, controlling grade inflation cannot help students if employers still think that 50% of students achieve honor roll designation. There needs to be a change in their minds, and if we take "make employers aware of the criteria used to determine who receives an honors degree" to mean that employers are being notified that honors degrees are harder to acquire, then it is the assumption.

Source?

TL;DR: The argument is about the only way to change the confidence level of employers and about top students demonstrating superiority (likely over other recent graduates). These have nothing to do with A.



What is the conclusion of this argument? It is "colleges must take steps to control grade inflation". This is the author's opinion that he is trying to put across.
The bit about employers was used only to introduce the subject. It doesn't have much to do with the actual argument. Hence (E) doesn't work out at all.

Rising grades could be a result of 'grade inflation' or 'higher achievement'. The author relates rising scores to grade inflation i.e. he is assuming that rising grades are not a result of 'higher achievement'. Hence, this is an assumption in the argument.
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Re: Top college graduates are having more difficulty [#permalink] New post 21 Aug 2012, 05:58
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
What is the conclusion of this argument? It is "colleges must take steps to control grade inflation". This is the author's opinion that he is trying to put across.
The bit about employers was used only to introduce the subject. It doesn't have much to do with the actual argument. Hence (E) doesn't work out at all.

Rising grades could be a result of 'grade inflation' or 'higher achievement'. The author relates rising scores to grade inflation i.e. he is assuming that rising grades are not a result of 'higher achievement'. Hence, this is an assumption in the argument.


Disagree. You truncated the argument. While the conclusion is the most important element, you often need to include premises and background information to understand the scope of the conclusion.

Here, the reference to employers gives us necessary context for the conclusion. Why does the author think universities must control grade inflation? To comply with federal regulations? To be competitive with other universities? According to the argument, it is to alter the mentality of employers:

"Therefore, to restore confidence in the degrees they award, colleges must take steps to control grade inflation." The infinitive gives us the reason that the author thinks that colleges must control grade inflation. This reason is to make employers more confident in the value of the degrees that they award (context tells us that the author is specifically referring to honors degrees). You cannot ignore this in analyzing the answers. Focusing on only one aspect of the argument and allowing your brain to lead you down the wrong path leads you into traps on trickier arguments. If one of the answers said "curbing grade inflation would have an effect on employers' confidence," then A would be an excellent trap answer.

Why would A be a trap answer? Because, again, it is irrelevant. So what if students were achieving higher? That would not negate the need to curb grade inflation if universities want to restore employers' confidence. Employers would still not be confident in the designation given by an honors degree, and universities would still potentially have to curb grades to restore this confidence.

And I never said that E was a good answer, just that it's content was the most relevant.

The intended assumption is good (having to come up with an alternate explanation is common on arguments); however, this argument's construction hinders its correctness.
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Re: Top college graduates are having more difficulty [#permalink] New post 21 Aug 2012, 20:17
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mmagyar wrote:

Disagree. You truncated the argument. While the conclusion is the most important element, you often need to include premises and background information to understand the scope of the conclusion.

Here, the reference to employers gives us necessary context for the conclusion. Why does the author think universities must control grade inflation? To comply with federal regulations? To be competitive with other universities? According to the argument, it is to alter the mentality of employers:

"Therefore, to restore confidence in the degrees they award, colleges must take steps to control grade inflation." The infinitive gives us the reason that the author thinks that colleges must control grade inflation. This reason is to make employers more confident in the value of the degrees that they award (context tells us that the author is specifically referring to honors degrees). You cannot ignore this in analyzing the answers. Focusing on only one aspect of the argument and allowing your brain to lead you down the wrong path leads you into traps on trickier arguments. If one of the answers said "curbing grade inflation would have an effect on employers' confidence," then A would be an excellent trap answer.

Why would A be a trap answer? Because, again, it is irrelevant. So what if students were achieving higher? That would not negate the need to curb grade inflation if universities want to restore employers' confidence. Employers would still not be confident in the designation given by an honors degree, and universities would still potentially have to curb grades to restore this confidence.

And I never said that E was a good answer, just that it's content was the most relevant.

The intended assumption is good (having to come up with an alternate explanation is common on arguments); however, this argument's construction hinders its correctness.


Ok, one last time, let me try to help you understand the question writer's perspective.

Think - will the argument change if I put 'adcom of post grad schools' instead of employers? It doesn't matter who they are demonstrating their ability to. What matters is that it is harder to demonstrate because grades are rising. You need to focus on the reason for rising grades. There is a problem if there is grade inflation. Also, when you say, "So what if students were achieving higher? That would not negate the need to curb grade inflation if universities want to restore employers' confidence." I think you don't understand what grade inflation is. It is not the same as rising grades.
This is what wikipedia says about grade inflation: "Grade inflation is said to occur when higher grades are assigned for work that would have received lower grades in the past. Whether rising grades are a result of grade inflation or higher achievement can be difficult to discern and often can be determined only with systematic research."

If higher achievement is leading to rising grades, there is no problem. Students will find it hard to impress employers because of tougher competition. Checking grade inflation doesn't help in that case.
In his argument, the author assumes that rising grades are due to grade inflation, not higher achievement.
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Re: Top college graduates are having more difficulty [#permalink] New post 22 Aug 2012, 05:13
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
mmagyar wrote:

Disagree. You truncated the argument. While the conclusion is the most important element, you often need to include premises and background information to understand the scope of the conclusion.

Here, the reference to employers gives us necessary context for the conclusion. Why does the author think universities must control grade inflation? To comply with federal regulations? To be competitive with other universities? According to the argument, it is to alter the mentality of employers:

"Therefore, to restore confidence in the degrees they award, colleges must take steps to control grade inflation." The infinitive gives us the reason that the author thinks that colleges must control grade inflation. This reason is to make employers more confident in the value of the degrees that they award (context tells us that the author is specifically referring to honors degrees). You cannot ignore this in analyzing the answers. Focusing on only one aspect of the argument and allowing your brain to lead you down the wrong path leads you into traps on trickier arguments. If one of the answers said "curbing grade inflation would have an effect on employers' confidence," then A would be an excellent trap answer.

Why would A be a trap answer? Because, again, it is irrelevant. So what if students were achieving higher? That would not negate the need to curb grade inflation if universities want to restore employers' confidence. Employers would still not be confident in the designation given by an honors degree, and universities would still potentially have to curb grades to restore this confidence.

And I never said that E was a good answer, just that it's content was the most relevant.

The intended assumption is good (having to come up with an alternate explanation is common on arguments); however, this argument's construction hinders its correctness.


Ok, one last time, let me try to help you understand the question writer's perspective.

Think - will the argument change if I put 'adcom of post grad schools' instead of employers? It doesn't matter who they are demonstrating their ability to. What matters is that it is harder to demonstrate because grades are rising. You need to focus on the reason for rising grades. There is a problem if there is grade inflation. Also, when you say, "So what if students were achieving higher? That would not negate the need to curb grade inflation if universities want to restore employers' confidence." I think you don't understand what grade inflation is. It is not the same as rising grades.
This is what wikipedia says about grade inflation: "Grade inflation is said to occur when higher grades are assigned for work that would have received lower grades in the past. Whether rising grades are a result of grade inflation or higher achievement can be difficult to discern and often can be determined only with systematic research."

If higher achievement is leading to rising grades, there is no problem. Students will find it hard to impress employers because of tougher competition. Checking grade inflation doesn't help in that case.
In his argument, the author assumes that rising grades are due to grade inflation, not higher achievement.


I understand the writer's perspective, and I know what grade inflation is. I think you do not. Grade inflation exists in this argument. The author clearly states: "Today, however, because of grade inflation, the honors degree goes to more than 50 percent of a graduating class." Why do you ignore this premise? It is usually improper to contradict a premise in an assumption question. And, even if this is one of the rare cases in which it happens, that students are higher achievers does not affect this premise. Students can be higher achievers, there can still be grade inflation, and universities can still need to curb it in order to restore confidence. Thus, answer A fails the negation test and is not an assumption for this argument.

You continue to ignore important pieces of the argument in an attempt to hold onto answer A. I do not understand why. The author incorporates the perception of employers in the conclusion, but you pretend that it is not there. The author tells you that there is grade inflation, but you pretend that it is not there. These are terrible habits on critical reasoning questions and will lead you (and those you teach) to choosing trap answers on the harder questions.

You said "you need to focus on the reason for rising grades," but this is wrong. For others who are reading this, don't develop tunnel vision. Pre-thinking the right answer is a good strategy to understand the weaknesses of an argument, but it often leads to tunnel-vision and trap answers if the test-taker is not careful. You need to be open-minded, because sometimes you will often pre-think and end up not seeing your prediction in the answer choices. Other times, you will pre-think a trap answer (they know how to trick you) and end up choosing it without analyzing it. Additionally, no matter how great an answer looks, you have to be able to point out why the answer is wrong, not why it is right. Without such a critical approach, you will never master the tougher questions and will continually feel like you always get it down to 2 and choose the wrong one (this is a common problem that I have fixed many times for LSAT students).

This discussion is moot, and I will no longer participate in it. The official answer is A, but it is not an assumption. I have laid out my points in hopes that those who struggle with this question can understand why this is a poorly constructed argument/answer combination, and there is nothing further to say.
Re: Top college graduates are having more difficulty   [#permalink] 22 Aug 2012, 05:13
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