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Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the

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Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.
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Re: CR: Assumption [#permalink]

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sbsharma wrote:
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

What are the things in this argument
X seperated from Y
H of flowers on X are 40 cms short than H of flowers on Y
Y is drier than X
Conclusion Dryness caused the height difference.

Assumption: No other factors affected Height. C
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.

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Re: CR: Assumption [#permalink]

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BlueRobin wrote:
sbsharma wrote:
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

What are the things in this argument
X seperated from Y
H of flowers on X are 40 cms short than H of flowers on Y
Y is drier than X
Conclusion Dryness caused the height difference.

Assumption: No other factors affected Height. C
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.



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Re: CR: Assumption [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2010, 14:20
C for me.
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Re: CR: Assumption [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2010, 21:21
this 1 can be easilt narrowed to C and D, rest all are OOS
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Re: CR: Assumption [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2010, 15:48
C for me..
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Last edited by bhandariavi on 29 Jul 2010, 18:32, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: CR: Assumption [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2010, 06:22
c
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Re: CR: Assumption [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2010, 18:59
=D nice question.
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Re: CR: Assumption [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2013, 08:50
seekmba wrote:
C for me.

WHy not D?
Even D gives reasons for the shorter height
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Re: CR: Assumption [#permalink]

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Sam1 wrote:
seekmba wrote:
C for me.

WHy not D?
Even D gives reasons for the shorter height


By stating "The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland," choice D is implying that the soil in the Tufe Peninsula is causing the Turfil to grow taller rather than the conclusion we are trying to strengthen - changes in the environment between the two land masses. Thus we are not strengthening the argument.

Additionally, a great tactic to employ with assumption questions, one I find used frequently in posts, is the negation technique. If we negate Choice D by saying that the soil HAS important nutrients rather than LACKS important nutrients does this negation of the assumption destroy the case being made in the argument that it's the environment's fault? Not really. The flowers can possibly have the important nutrients to grow taller, maybe 5 cm, and still be shorter as a result of the dry environment. Whereas in choice C if we negate the answer choice by saying "The mainland's environment HAS changed..." then we destroy the conclusion by saying that it's not the drier environment that caused the flowers to shrink but the better environment that caused them to grow.
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2014, 04:47
sbsharma wrote:
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.


Could somebody explain why is C the answer?

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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2014, 09:23
jlgdr wrote:
sbsharma wrote:
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.


Could somebody explain why is C the answer?

Thanks
Cheers
J

The author’s underlying assumption in the stimulus is that the mainland’s environment has not changed. When the author says ”Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was.” the author is saying that the Island NOW is drier than the mainland WAS. Nothing is mentioned of the mainland NOW. Yet, the author concludes that the changes in height of the Turfil sunflowers that are located on the island are partially attributable to changes in environmental conditions of the island. We know that the conclusion is referring only to the island’s population since the stimulus only refers to the height of the island’s sunflower as being shorter. Now what would happen to the argument if it is found that the environment on the mainland changed as well?
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Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2014, 04:56
sbsharma wrote:
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today.
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations.



Argument structure is:

Island is dryer than was before
Sunflower in island has 40 cm lower in average--------->Average height attributable to environment change


Prethink:

1. Defender assumptions: There is no other factors/reasons why sf is lower, no data error, no reverse causation
2. Suporter (gap) assumptions: Being dryer than before is environmental change

Answer choices:
A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions. Out of scope- we don't need other vegetaion
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today. Out of scope- we interested in height not in number
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago. Eliminate other factor that could be explanation-CORRECT

D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment. Introduce other factor - weakens the conclusion
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations. Out of scope- we interested exactly in this difference
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the [#permalink]

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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the [#permalink]

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New post 22 Feb 2016, 03:33
I need an help regarding this question
option A says: There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions. [it means that its the dry conditions (environmental change) that has an impact on all the vegetation. it confirms that the writer is true about conclusion that its the environment that has caused shorter length of Tufe.
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the [#permalink]

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New post 22 Feb 2016, 10:14
sananoor wrote:
I need an help regarding this question
option A says: There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions. [it means that its the dry conditions (environmental change) that has an impact on all the vegetation. it confirms that the writer is true about conclusion that its the environment that has caused shorter length of Tufe.


Lets try-

Quote:
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.


The last sentence ( The conclusion ) of the stimulus is very important, it says everything the author wants to convey.

Now lets decode the authors reasoning.

Mainland - Height of Plant is H
Island - Height of Plant is H - 40


Now carefully check the last to sentences ( more closely on the green part ) which leads to the conclusion.

Quote:
Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedlyat least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.


This clearly means that change in environmental conditions ( Environment of the island becoming drier) may be one of the reasons ( There may be other factors as well) that have resulted in reduced height of the sunflowers in the island.

Lets check the option (A) -

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions.

We do not have sufficient information to state whether any type of vegetation benefits or not , further it is doubtful what the term benefits exactly mean ( Does increase in height constitute as a benefit or something else)

Hence IMHO (C) is a better option, and if we negate the option the entire argument falls apart.
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2016, 23:29
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions. - Irrelevant
B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today. - Irrelevant
C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago. - If we negate this, then that means that the mainland's environment has changed and hence is the reason for difference in length. This is a blow on the conclusion which states that the change in TUFE'S environment is the reason for the difference in height.
D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment. - This could be a possible explanation of the situation, but does not strengthen the author's conclusion - that environmental conditions on Tufe are a reason for difference in length. Hence this cannot be the assumption that the author made.
E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations. - Irrelevant
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2016, 13:06
does option C mean : its actually the plant in tufe peninsula that grows and plant in tufe island does not change and thats why the difference in height??
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Re: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2016, 06:46
C for me.

Equations made after reading the argument:
Height of TSP lesser than Height of TSM
Climate condition at P drier than Climate condition at M
=> Climate impacts TSP.

Therefore assumption should be taken at facevalue of the argumanet, assumption should be a regarding climate and TSP/TSM

Only B fits.

NOTE:
TSM: Tufe Sunflower at MAinland
TSM: Tufe Sunflower at Peninsulat
M: Mainland
P: Peninsula
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Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2016, 07:08
deepak268 wrote:
does option C mean : its actually the plant in tufe peninsula that grows and plant in tufe island does not change and thats why the difference in height??


No, actually the other way round. The island plants grow 40 cm less than the mainland plants. However the point is not which group grows more - it is the difference in growth that matters:

There are 3 environmental conditions discussed here:

1. Past: the environmental condition of the mainland (the island was a part of the mainland then).
2. Present: the environmental condition of the mainland.
3. Present: the environmental condition of the island.

The argument is:
Present: the plan height on island is different from plant height on main land ( the plants under conditions 2 and 3 are different).
However the reason for this difference is stated as the difference between 1 and 3 ( NOT 2 and 3!)... "Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula WAS". So it is assumed that condition 2 has not changed in the same way as condition 3.

Another approach (negation):

The mainland’s environment has not changed. Thus the conditions 2 and 3 are same now, so there is no environmental reason that the heights would be different. Thus the argument breaks down.

Option C is hence correct.
Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the   [#permalink] 07 Oct 2016, 07:08
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