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Two recent publications offer different assessments of the [#permalink] New post 19 Jan 2013, 00:31
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Two recent publications offer different assessments of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale. A book by Anne Summers seeks to debunk the idealizations and present a reality at odds with Nightingale's heroic reputation. According to Summers Nightingale's importance during the Crimean War has been exaggerated: not until near the war's end did she become supervisor of the female nurses. Additionally, Summers writes that the contribution of the nurses to the relief of the wounded was at best marginal. The prevailing problems of military medicine were caused by army organizational practices, and the addition of a few nurses to the medical staff could be no more than symbolic. Nightingale's place in the national pantheon, Summers asserts, is largely due to the propagandistic efforts of contemporary newspaper reporters.

By contrast, the editors of a new volume of Nightingale's letters view Nightingale as a person who significantly influenced not only her own age but also subsequent generations. They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war. For example, when she learned that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exceeded that of neighboring civilian populations, she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army. She used sums raised through public contributions to found a nurses' training hospital in London. Even in administrative matters, the editors assert her practical intelligence was formidable: as recently as 1947 the British Army's medical services were still using the cost-accounting system she had devised in the 1860's.

I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale's brilliance and creativity. When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their faculties of observation she sounds like a modern educator. Her insistence on classifying the problems of the needy in order to devise appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of modern social workers. In sum, although Nightingale may not have achieved all other goals during the Crimean War, her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers.
Questions:
1. The passage is primarily concerned with evaluating
(A) the importance of Florence Nightingale's innovations in the field of nursing
(B) contrasting approaches to the writing of historical biography
(C) contradictory accounts of Florence Nightingale's historical significance
(D) the quality of health care in nineteenth-century England
(E) the effect of the Crimean War on developments in the field of health care

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: C


2. According to the passage, the editors of Nightingale's letters credit her with contributing to which of the following?
(A) Improvement of the survival rate for soldiers in British Army hospitals during the Crimean War
(B) The development of a nurses' training curriculum that was far in advance of its day
(C) The increase in the number of women doctors practicing in British Army hospitals
(D) Establishment of the first facility for training nurses at a major British university
(E) The creation of an organization for monitoring the peacetime living conditions of British soldiers

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: E


3. The passage suggests which of the following about Nightingale's relationship with the British public of her day?
(A) She was highly respected, her projects receiving popular and governmental support.
(B) She encountered resistance both from the army establishment and the general public.
(C) She was supported by the working classes and opposed by the wealthier classes.
(D) She was supported by the military establishment but had to fight the governmental bureaucracy.
(E) After initially being received with enthusiasm, she was quickly forgotten.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: A


4. The passage suggests which of the following about sanitary conditions in Britain after the Crimean War?
(A) While not ideal, they were superior to those in other parts of the world.
(B) Compared with conditions before the war, they had deteriorated.
(C) They were more advanced in rural areas than in the urban centers.
(D) They were worse in military camps than in the neighboring civilian populations.
(E) They were uniformly crude and unsatisfactory throughout England.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: D


5. With which of the following statements regarding the differing interpretations of Nightingale's importance would the author most likely agree?
(A) Summers misunderstood both the importance of Nightingale's achievements during the Crimean War and her subsequent influence on British policy.
(B) The editors of Nightingale's letters made some valid points about her practical achievements but they still exaggerated her influence on subsequent generations.
(C) Although Summers' account of Nightingale's role in the Crimean War may be accurate, she ignored evidence of Nightingale's subsequent achievement that suggests that her reputation as an eminent social reformer is well deserved.
(D) The editors of Nightingale's letters mistakenly propagated the outdated idealization of Nightingale that only impedes attempts to arrive at a balanced assessment of her true role.
(E) The evidence of Nightingale's letters supports Summers' conclusions both about Nightingale's activities and about her influence.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: C


6. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the author's assessment of Nightingale's creativity?
(A) Educational philosophy in Nightingale's day did not normally emphasize developing children's ability to observe.
(B) Nightingale was the first to notice the poor living conditions in British military barracks in peacetime.
(C) No educator before Nightingale had thought to enlist the help of village schoolmasters in introducing new teaching techniques.
(D) Until Nightingale began her work, there was no concept of organized help for the needy in nineteenth-century Britain.
(E) The British army's medical services had no cost- accounting system until Nightingale devised one in the 1860's.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: A


7. In the last paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with
(A) summarizing the arguments about Nightingale presented in the first two paragraphs
(B) refuting the view of Nightingale's career presented in the preceding paragraph
(C) analyzing the weaknesses of the evidence presented elsewhere in the passage
(D) citing evidence to support a view of Nightingale's career
(E) correcting a factual error occurring in one of the works under review

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: D



PS: I see this paragraph has been posted before but that doesn't list all the questions. Here are all the list of questions compiled with their OAs.
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Re: Career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale [#permalink] New post 19 Jan 2013, 10:06
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Re: Career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale [#permalink] New post 19 Jan 2013, 12:08
carcass wrote:
Soon I 'll attack the problem :)

great passage + 1 in the meantime


Sure...good luck. Few specific/detail questions are tricky (especially question 6)
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Re: Career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2013, 07:50
I completed all questions in 13 minutes. I took 4.30 Minutes in reading the passage. My answers are:

C E A D C A A

I marked Q.7's answer A but the OA is D. Still I could not get how D is the answer and how A is wrong. Please anyone clarify my doubts.
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Re: Career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale [#permalink] New post 06 Feb 2013, 14:58
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Nice Passage. I'll try to explain the questions I got right -

1. The passage is primarily concerned with evaluating
(A) the importance of Florence Nightingale's innovations in the field of nursing
(B) contrasting approaches to the writing of historical biography
(C) contradictory accounts of Florence Nightingale's historical significance
(D) the quality of health care in nineteenth-century England
(E) the effect of the Crimean War on developments in the field of health care

This is a 'General' category question. FYI - Manhattan focusses on 2 categories
1. General - One can answer this based on first read/ one does not need to re-read the passage/ One needs to understand the structure here.
2. Specific - One might need to re-read the passage and hunt for 'specific' information.

After reading the passage, I understood the structure to be something like this -
Main point lies in first sentence - Two recent publications offer different assessments of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale.
1st Para - Book by Anne Summers feels importance of Nightingale during the Crimean War has been exaggerated. -ve tone.
2nd Para - Nightingale's letters tell us this is not the case - +ve tone.
3rd Para - Author's own view. +ve tone

Based on this one can easily eliminate A, D and E. B and C attract because of words - contrasting and contradictory. But contrasting approaches to the writing of historical biography ?? Really !! There's no writing of a biography involved.

C. Contradictory accounts of Florence Nightingale's historical significance. Re-read the first sentence and one can get it - different assessments of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale.

Hence Ans is C

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2. According to the passage, the editors of Nightingale's letters credit her with contributing to which of the following?
(A) Improvement of the survival rate for soldiers in British Army hospitals during the Crimean War - very tempting but not mentioned.
(B) The development of a nurses' training curriculum that was far in advance of its day - It's never mentioned it was advance of it's day
(C) The increase in the number of women doctors practicing in British Army hospitals - Not mentioned
(D) Establishment of the first facility for training nurses at a major British university - We do not know whether it was first or not
(E) The creation of an organization for monitoring the peacetime living conditions of British soldiers - Bingo. Remember the Royal Commission. CORRECT

This is a specific category question and we know we need to refer back to second para.
Highlighted words are the basis of elimination of these coices.

Hence Ans is: E

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

3. The passage suggests which of the following about Nightingale's relationship with the British public of her day?
(A) She was highly respected, her projects receiving popular and governmental support. - CORRECT
(B) She encountered resistance both from the army establishment and the general public. - Not mentioned
(C) She was supported by the working classes and opposed by the wealthier classes. - We do not know
(D) She was supported by the military establishment but had to fight the governmental bureaucracy. - Not mentioned
(E) After initially being received with enthusiasm, she was quickly forgotten. - We do not know

This is a General question and easy one.
Overall tone of passage in her favor is +ve. - her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers.

Hence Ans: A

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

4. The passage suggests which of the following about sanitary conditions in Britain after the Crimean War?
(A) While not ideal, they were superior to those in other parts of the world.
(B) Compared with conditions before the war, they had deteriorated.
(C) They were more advanced in rural areas than in the urban centers.
(D) They were worse in military camps than in the neighboring civilian populations. CORRECT
(E) They were uniformly crude and unsatisfactory throughout England.

Specific question. Read Para 2.
They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war. For example, when she learned that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exceeded that of neighboring civilian populations,


-----------------------------------------------------------------------

7. In the last paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with
(A) summarizing the arguments about Nightingale presented in the first two paragraphs. The author is not summarizing.
(B) refuting the view of Nightingale's career presented in the preceding paragraph. No. Author's tone supports 2nd para.
(C) analyzing the weaknesses of the evidence presented elsewhere in the passage. The author does not analyze the weakness.
(D) citing evidence to support a view of Nightingale's career. CORRECT
(E) correcting a factual error occurring in one of the works under review. The author does not correct a factual error.

A, B, C and E can be eliminated immediately.


I got 5th and 6th wrong.
Hope this helps !!
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Re: Career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale [#permalink] New post 12 Feb 2013, 03:29
Hi everybody here,

Could anyone explain why in question 5: With which of the following statements regarding the differing interpretations of Nightingale's importance would the author most likely agree?

(C) Although Summers' account of Nightingale's role in the Crimean War may be accurate, she ignored evidence of Nightingale's subsequent achievement that suggests that her reputation as an eminent social reformer is well deserved.

where does the author mentioned that Summer's account of Nightingale's role in the Crimean War may be accurate ?

Thx
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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the [#permalink] New post 13 Mar 2013, 06:31
Can someone please explain the strategy to answer question 6 here?
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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the [#permalink] New post 13 Mar 2013, 07:42
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pr90 wrote:
Can someone please explain the strategy to answer question 6 here?


6. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the author's assessment of Nightingale's creativity?
Original:
(A) Educational philosophy in Nightingale's day did not normally emphasize developing children's ability to observe.
(B) Nightingale was the first to notice the poor living conditions in British military barracks in peacetime.
(C) No educator before Nightingale had thought to enlist the help of village schoolmasters in introducing new teaching techniques.
(D) Until Nightingale began her work, there was no concept of organized help for the needy in nineteenth-century Britain.
(E) The British army's medical services had no cost- accounting system until Nightingale devised one in the 1860's.

Hi PR90, there are some good questions in this passage. Since you specifically asked for question 6, let's review how to attack assumption questions. The best strategy is to employ the Assumption Negation Technique, whereby you negate the stated assumptions and discover which cause the entire argument to fall down. If the argument still stands, then the assumption wasn't necessary. This is the best way to evaluate assumptions that all seem reasonable at first glance.

Negated:
A) Educational philosophy in Nightingale's day DID normally emphasize developing children's ability to observe: Negated, this destroys the entire premise that Nightingale had a heightened sense of creativity. In effect, every child already was subjected to what Nightingale proposed, hence her creativity was somewhere between bland and non-existant.
B) Nightingale was NOT the first to notice the poor living conditions in British military barracks in peacetime: Others had noticed before, but no one did anything. Argument still stands.
C) SOME educators before Nightingale had thought to enlist the help of village schoolmasters in introducing new teaching techniques: Some people already had done this, but what techniques? Same as Nightingale? Different techniques? Could easily be true and the argument holds.
D) Until Nightingale began her work, there WAS already the concept of organized help for the needy in ninteenth century Britain: There was a concept but Nightingale expanded upon it, argument still holds.
E) The British army's medical services had AN cost-accounting system until Nightingale designed one in 1860s: They had one, but Nightingale's was better. Same concept as D.

Once you negate all the options, it becomes clear that only A is required for Nightingale's creativity to be praised. The others could be false and her creativity could still be highly lauded. In assumption questions, the wording used can often be more important than how much the assumption strengthens the text. You're looking for the necessary assumption, not the strongest.
Hope this helps!
-Ron
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Last edited by VeritasPrepRon on 13 Mar 2013, 08:10, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the [#permalink] New post 13 Mar 2013, 08:00
Ron

Thanks for the reply!
I selected the answer as E. My logic was the following:
The paragraph starts with "I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale's brilliance and creativity."
So the creativity that the author mentions should be due to something mentioned in the letters. And the last point in the previous paragraph about the letters was about the cost accounting system. Also its not given anywhere that they had a cost accounting system before Nightingale devised one.

Can you explain why this logic may be faulty?
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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the [#permalink] New post 13 Mar 2013, 08:17
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pr90 wrote:
Ron

Thanks for the reply!
I selected the answer as E. My logic was the following:
The paragraph starts with "I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale's brilliance and creativity."
So the creativity that the author mentions should be due to something mentioned in the letters. And the last point in the previous paragraph about the letters was about the cost accounting system. Also its not given anywhere that they had a cost accounting system before Nightingale devised one.

Can you explain why this logic may be faulty?


Hey PR90, sure thing! The reason is that the assumption can be false, and Nightingale's creativity is still fantastic. The assumption is that they had no cost-accounting system before 1860, in which case Nightingale helped them out tremendously by designing one for them. Conversely, though, they could have already had such a system, but it was terrible. Imagine they had a system which assigned a snail for every soldier injured, and used an abacus to keep track of money owed. Then anytime someone came in, they could move the numbers on the abacus and everyone would lose track of the accounting process. Or the snails could just sneak away when no one is looking. If such a terrible system were in place, then Nightingale's revolutionary ideas of "using a pen and paper" and whatever other wizardry she came up with would make her seem like a genius by comparison.

In essence, it isn't necessary that NO system existed before Nightingale's input, only that the system was inefficient. (I mean, snails? Who does that!?) Don't let the placement of the information in the text sway your decision, it's not where the information is placed in the text, it's how it related to the overall point.

Hope this helps!
-Ron
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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the [#permalink] New post 16 Mar 2013, 03:49
Hi Ranjith,

Read the last paragraph again, the author beings by stating her personal opinion... "I believe that the evidence of her letters........."
Given this fact we cannot conclude that the author is trying to summarize the arguments from the first 2 passages.
Hope this clarifies.


Hi Rock750,

The answer option that you have a doubt on starts with - "Although".
In my opinion "although" in this context means that "even if Summers interpretations of Nightingales work was accurate, the author believes that Nightingale has not been credited enough by Summers for the good innovative/creative work stated in paragraphs 2 and 3. :-D

Hope this addresses your thoughts.

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Re: Career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale [#permalink] New post 22 Mar 2013, 06:21
Hi Rock750,
Read the last line of the passage

In sum, although Nightingale [color=#ff0000]may not have achieved all other goals during the Crimean War, her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers.[/color]

These lines are Author's conclusion. Author has not taken any stance on the Summer's book, before these lines, but Author is positive about the Nightingale's subsequent role, refer to first line of last passage.

I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale's brilliance and creativity.

Now, think why author has said that Nightingale may not have achieved all other goals during the Crimean War, it must be the case that author do acknowledge that Summer book is also valid somewhere . Remember Summers book talk about Crimean War. you also need to hold tone as well. Its a Mild Tone, and hence answer choice should replicate that as well.

Check Choice A, its too strong tone. the choice is wrong for other obvious reasons as well.

Choice C replicates both Tone and Content of the passage.
Thanks


Rock750 wrote:
Hi everybody here,

Could anyone explain why in question 5: With which of the following statements regarding the differing interpretations of Nightingale's importance would the author most likely agree?

(C) Although Summers' account of Nightingale's role in the Crimean War may be accurate, she ignored evidence of Nightingale's subsequent achievement that suggests that her reputation as an eminent social reformer is well deserved.

where does the author mentioned that Summer's account of Nightingale's role in the Crimean War may be accurate ?

Thx

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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the [#permalink] New post 29 May 2013, 12:50
PraPon wrote:
Two recent publications offer different assessments of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale. A book by Anne Summers seeks to debunk the idealizations and present a reality at odds with Nightingale's heroic reputation. According to Summers Nightingale's importance during the Crimean War has been exaggerated: not until near the war's end did she become supervisor of the female nurses. Additionally, Summers writes that the contribution of the nurses to the relief of the wounded was at best marginal. The prevailing problems of military medicine were caused by army organizational practices, and the addition of a few nurses to the medical staff could be no more than symbolic. Nightingale's place in the national pantheon, Summers asserts, is largely due to the propagandistic efforts of contemporary newspaper reporters.

By contrast, the editors of a new volume of Nightingale's letters view Nightingale as a person who significantly influenced not only her own age but also subsequent generations. They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war. For example, when she learned that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exceeded that of neighboring civilian populations, she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army. She used sums raised through public contributions to found a nurses' training hospital in London. Even in administrative matters, the editors assert her practical intelligence was formidable: as recently as 1947 the British Army's medical services were still using the cost-accounting system she had devised in the 1860's.

I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale's brilliance and creativity. When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their faculties of observation she sounds like a modern educator. Her insistence on classifying the problems of the needy in order to devise appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of modern social workers. In sum, although Nightingale may not have achieved all other goals during the Crimean War, her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers.
Questions:
1. The passage is primarily concerned with evaluating
(A) the importance of Florence Nightingale's innovations in the field of nursing
(B) contrasting approaches to the writing of historical biography
(C) contradictory accounts of Florence Nightingale's historical significance
(D) the quality of health care in nineteenth-century England
(E) the effect of the Crimean War on developments in the field of health care

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: C


2. According to the passage, the editors of Nightingale's letters credit her with contributing to which of the following?
(A) Improvement of the survival rate for soldiers in British Army hospitals during the Crimean War
(B) The development of a nurses' training curriculum that was far in advance of its day
(C) The increase in the number of women doctors practicing in British Army hospitals
(D) Establishment of the first facility for training nurses at a major British university
(E) The creation of an organization for monitoring the peacetime living conditions of British soldiers

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: E


3. The passage suggests which of the following about Nightingale's relationship with the British public of her day?
(A) She was highly respected, her projects receiving popular and governmental support.
(B) She encountered resistance both from the army establishment and the general public.
(C) She was supported by the working classes and opposed by the wealthier classes.
(D) She was supported by the military establishment but had to fight the governmental bureaucracy.
(E) After initially being received with enthusiasm, she was quickly forgotten.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: A


4. The passage suggests which of the following about sanitary conditions in Britain after the Crimean War?
(A) While not ideal, they were superior to those in other parts of the world.
(B) Compared with conditions before the war, they had deteriorated.
(C) They were more advanced in rural areas than in the urban centers.
(D) They were worse in military camps than in the neighboring civilian populations.
(E) They were uniformly crude and unsatisfactory throughout England.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: D


5. With which of the following statements regarding the differing interpretations of Nightingale's importance would the author most likely agree?
(A) Summers misunderstood both the importance of Nightingale's achievements during the Crimean War and her subsequent influence on British policy.
(B) The editors of Nightingale's letters made some valid points about her practical achievements but they still exaggerated her influence on subsequent generations.
(C) Although Summers' account of Nightingale's role in the Crimean War may be accurate, she ignored evidence of Nightingale's subsequent achievement that suggests that her reputation as an eminent social reformer is well deserved.
(D) The editors of Nightingale's letters mistakenly propagated the outdated idealization of Nightingale that only impedes attempts to arrive at a balanced assessment of her true role.
(E) The evidence of Nightingale's letters supports Summers' conclusions both about Nightingale's activities and about her influence.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: C


6. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the author's assessment of Nightingale's creativity?
(A) Educational philosophy in Nightingale's day did not normally emphasize developing children's ability to observe.
(B) Nightingale was the first to notice the poor living conditions in British military barracks in peacetime.
(C) No educator before Nightingale had thought to enlist the help of village schoolmasters in introducing new teaching techniques.
(D) Until Nightingale began her work, there was no concept of organized help for the needy in nineteenth-century Britain.
(E) The British army's medical services had no cost- accounting system until Nightingale devised one in the 1860's.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: A


7. In the last paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with
(A) summarizing the arguments about Nightingale presented in the first two paragraphs
(B) refuting the view of Nightingale's career presented in the preceding paragraph
(C) analyzing the weaknesses of the evidence presented elsewhere in the passage
(D) citing evidence to support a view of Nightingale's career
(E) correcting a factual error occurring in one of the works under review

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer: D



PS: I see this paragraph has been posted before but that doesn't list all the questions. Here are all the list of questions compiled with their OAs.



Appreciate the fact that you have taken quiet a bit of time to post the question in such an organized fashion. Makes it so much easier to work it out.

Thanks,
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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the [#permalink] New post 29 May 2013, 20:17
Seeing some great responses! Glad to see some of you liked the passage & questions. Also thanks Experts for your insightful comments.
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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the [#permalink] New post 12 Jun 2013, 10:02
Can someone explain the question 5.
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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the [#permalink] New post 14 Jun 2013, 09:37
wow! I nailed it all! in a total of 9 min. Are these really 700 level questions? The most difficult question for me was the 6th one.
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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the [#permalink] New post 14 Jun 2013, 09:46
grakesh wrote:
Can someone explain the question 5.


Grakesh, the question "With which of the following statements regarding the differing interpretations of Nightingale's importance would the author most likely agree?" basically asks of the two different opinions shared about nightingale's importance, what would be the opinion the author would most agree with.

If we carefully read the 3rd paragraph we see that the author clearly accepts N's importance (read: I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale's ). However, the author does not present anything to refute Summer's claim (read: although Nightingale may not have achieved all other goals during the Crimean War), he just feels that N's work after the war is also sufficient to sustain her historic importance - Exactly what is said in the answer option C.
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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the [#permalink] New post 16 Jul 2014, 22:53
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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the [#permalink] New post 23 Jul 2014, 21:05
can someone please explain the answer to question 3. the paragraph states " she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army" ....if she had to persuade the government ..that probably means that she had to fight with the government bureaucracy. Thnx
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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the [#permalink] New post 04 Oct 2014, 01:01
My 2 cents on Q7 as I got it wrong.
7. In the last paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with
(A) summarizing the arguments about Nightingale presented in the first two paragraphs
(D) citing evidence to support a view of Nightingale's career
Why is it D and not A?
Para1:
Negative view
Para2:
Positive view
Para3:

I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale's brilliance and creativity. ...... In sum, although Nightingale may not have achieved all other goals during the Crimean War, her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers.
Asserting the + view from Para 2, author summarizes the overall discussion and present his view(3rd view) and not the view from the first para.Hence D is a better option compared to A.

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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the   [#permalink] 04 Oct 2014, 01:01
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