Find all School-related info fast with the new School-Specific MBA Forum

It is currently 26 Nov 2015, 12:48
GMAT Club Tests


GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance


we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

Two recent publications offer different assessments of the c

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
User avatar
Joined: 08 Jan 2013
Posts: 38
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 17 [0], given: 5

Two recent publications offer different assessments of the c [#permalink] New post 30 Apr 2013, 13:22
Complete Question is discussed at the below mentioned link

Two recent publications offer different assessments of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale. A book by Anne Summers seeks to debunk the idealizations and present a reality at odds with Nightingale's heroic reputation. According to Summers Nightingale's importance during the Crimean War has been exaggerated: not until near the war's end did she become supervisor of the female nurses. Additionally, Summers writes that the contribution of the nurses to the relief of the wounded was at best marginal. The prevailing problems of military medicine were caused by army organizational practices, and the addition of a few nurses to the medical staff could be no more than symbolic. Nightingale's place in the national pantheon, Summers asserts, is largely due to the propagandistic efforts of contemporary newspaper reporters.

By contrast, the editors of a new volume of Nightingale's letters view Nightingale as a person who significantly influenced not only her own age but also subsequent generations. They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war. For example, when she learned that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exceeded that of neighboring civilian populations, she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army. She used sums raised through public contributions to found a nurses' training hospital in London. Even in administrative matters, the editors assert her practical intelligence was formidable: as recently as 1947 the British Army's medical services were still using the cost-accounting system she had devised in the 1860's.

I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale's brilliance and creativity. When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their faculties of observation she sounds like a modern educator. Her insistence on classifying the problems of the needy in order to devise appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of modern social workers. In sum, although Nightingale may not have achieved all other goals during the Crimean War, her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers

In the last paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with...
A. Summarizing...
B. Refuting...
C. Analyzing...
D. Citing...
E. Correcting...

The answer is D. Citing...Can you please explain where the citation is?

My understanding of citing is to quote an authority to support an opinion. I see opinions and statements in the final paragraph, but I do not see a single supportive quote or reference. I was confident D. Citing... cannot be the answer!

GMATPrep's explanation is that the author cites Nightingale's letters. I see a reference to those letters, but a reference does not automatically qualify as a citation. For example, in which of her historic letters does Nightingale describe herself as being like a future educator? Clearly I do not currently agree with the answer, but I would really like to. Can someone please flesh out the explanation?
Kaplan Promo CodeKnewton GMAT Discount CodesManhattan GMAT Discount Codes
Expert Post
User avatar
Joined: 01 Sep 2010
Posts: 2688
Followers: 559

Kudos [?]: 4320 [0], given: 746

Re: Citing Nightingale (medium level question) [#permalink] New post 02 May 2013, 10:23
Expert's post
I think the key word is the first 3: I believe that.........

Also I agree with you that reference is not a citation automatically BUT generally speaking a reference IS a citation. The only explanation I see

Quant: 1. ALL GMATPrep questions Quant/Verbal 2. Bunuel Signature Collection - The Next Generation 3. Bunuel Signature Collection ALL-IN-ONE WITH SOLUTIONS 4. Veritas Prep Blog PDF Version
Verbal:1. Verbal question bank and directories by Carcass

User avatar
Joined: 08 Jan 2013
Posts: 38
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 17 [0], given: 5

Re: Citing Nightingale (medium level question) [#permalink] New post 05 May 2013, 08:11
Thanks for adding bold to the appropriate text. I have put some thought to this and have 2 new questions:

There is no citation when looking at Paragraph 3 on its own. For example, "I believe that I'm always right, and this post proves it", contains a reference without a citation. You can say it is an absurd statement without me being offended, but unfortunately, I think my example matches the academic quality of Paragraph 3 in isolation. If we accept that a dead-end reference is sufficient:

1. In the context of GMAT, can we always assume that "reference" is synonymous with "citation"?

I have identified an alternative lead; there is a stronger reference in Paragraph 2 to "the editors". Those editors are an authority on Nightingale's Letters and their insight can be used to qualify an author's opinion. I assume their authority could be inherited in Paragraph 3 with an implied cross-reference, which is an improvement on blunt opinions in isolation. However, the author has not quoted those editors, so there is still no citation.

2. When a GMAT question specifies one paragraph, can we always inherit qualifications from other paragraphs in the same passage?
Re: Citing Nightingale (medium level question)   [#permalink] 05 May 2013, 08:11
    Similar topics Author Replies Last post
2 Experts publish their posts in the topic Archaeologists working in two recently discovered limestone Gnpth 9 31 Mar 2015, 09:48
48 Experts publish their posts in the topic Two recent publications offer different assessments of the PrashantPonde 24 19 Jan 2013, 00:31
Two recent publications offer different assessment of the talismaaniac 3 09 Sep 2012, 14:21
2 Valuation of Education is a research method that assesses Financier 9 26 Aug 2010, 09:26
Recently the focus of historical studies of different ethnic rs2010 6 05 Apr 2009, 18:39
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Two recent publications offer different assessments of the c

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  

GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Privacy Policy| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.