Two recent publications offer different assessments of the c : GMAT Reading Comprehension (RC)
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# Two recent publications offer different assessments of the c

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Intern
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Two recent publications offer different assessments of the c [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2013, 13:22
Complete Question is discussed at the below mentioned link
two-recent-publications-offer-different-assessments-of-the-146026.html

Two recent publications offer different assessments of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale. A book by Anne Summers seeks to debunk the idealizations and present a reality at odds with Nightingale's heroic reputation. According to Summers Nightingale's importance during the Crimean War has been exaggerated: not until near the war's end did she become supervisor of the female nurses. Additionally, Summers writes that the contribution of the nurses to the relief of the wounded was at best marginal. The prevailing problems of military medicine were caused by army organizational practices, and the addition of a few nurses to the medical staff could be no more than symbolic. Nightingale's place in the national pantheon, Summers asserts, is largely due to the propagandistic efforts of contemporary newspaper reporters.

By contrast, the editors of a new volume of Nightingale's letters view Nightingale as a person who significantly influenced not only her own age but also subsequent generations. They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war. For example, when she learned that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exceeded that of neighboring civilian populations, she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army. She used sums raised through public contributions to found a nurses' training hospital in London. Even in administrative matters, the editors assert her practical intelligence was formidable: as recently as 1947 the British Army's medical services were still using the cost-accounting system she had devised in the 1860's.

I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale's brilliance and creativity. When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their faculties of observation she sounds like a modern educator. Her insistence on classifying the problems of the needy in order to devise appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of modern social workers. In sum, although Nightingale may not have achieved all other goals during the Crimean War, her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers

In the last paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with...
A. Summarizing...
B. Refuting...
C. Analyzing...
D. Citing...
E. Correcting...

The answer is D. Citing...Can you please explain where the citation is?

My understanding of citing is to quote an authority to support an opinion. I see opinions and statements in the final paragraph, but I do not see a single supportive quote or reference. I was confident D. Citing... cannot be the answer!

GMATPrep's explanation is that the author cites Nightingale's letters. I see a reference to those letters, but a reference does not automatically qualify as a citation. For example, in which of her historic letters does Nightingale describe herself as being like a future educator? Clearly I do not currently agree with the answer, but I would really like to. Can someone please flesh out the explanation?
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Re: Citing Nightingale (medium level question) [#permalink]

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02 May 2013, 10:23
I think the key word is the first 3: I believe that.........

Also I agree with you that reference is not a citation automatically BUT generally speaking a reference IS a citation. The only explanation I see
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Re: Citing Nightingale (medium level question) [#permalink]

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05 May 2013, 08:11
Thanks for adding bold to the appropriate text. I have put some thought to this and have 2 new questions:

There is no citation when looking at Paragraph 3 on its own. For example, "I believe that I'm always right, and this post proves it", contains a reference without a citation. You can say it is an absurd statement without me being offended, but unfortunately, I think my example matches the academic quality of Paragraph 3 in isolation. If we accept that a dead-end reference is sufficient:

1. In the context of GMAT, can we always assume that "reference" is synonymous with "citation"?

I have identified an alternative lead; there is a stronger reference in Paragraph 2 to "the editors". Those editors are an authority on Nightingale's Letters and their insight can be used to qualify an author's opinion. I assume their authority could be inherited in Paragraph 3 with an implied cross-reference, which is an improvement on blunt opinions in isolation. However, the author has not quoted those editors, so there is still no citation.

2. When a GMAT question specifies one paragraph, can we always inherit qualifications from other paragraphs in the same passage?
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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the c [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2016, 03:34
stormbind wrote:
Complete Question is discussed at the below mentioned link
two-recent-publications-offer-different-assessments-of-the-146026.html

Two recent publications offer different assessments of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale. A book by Anne Summers seeks to debunk the idealizations and present a reality at odds with Nightingale's heroic reputation. According to Summers Nightingale's importance during the Crimean War has been exaggerated: not until near the war's end did she become supervisor of the female nurses. Additionally, Summers writes that the contribution of the nurses to the relief of the wounded was at best marginal. The prevailing problems of military medicine were caused by army organizational practices, and the addition of a few nurses to the medical staff could be no more than symbolic. Nightingale's place in the national pantheon, Summers asserts, is largely due to the propagandistic efforts of contemporary newspaper reporters.

By contrast, the editors of a new volume of Nightingale's letters view Nightingale as a person who significantly influenced not only her own age but also subsequent generations. They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war. For example, when she learned that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exceeded that of neighboring civilian populations, she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army. She used sums raised through public contributions to found a nurses' training hospital in London. Even in administrative matters, the editors assert her practical intelligence was formidable: as recently as 1947 the British Army's medical services were still using the cost-accounting system she had devised in the 1860's.

I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale's brilliance and creativity. When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their faculties of observation she sounds like a modern educator. Her insistence on classifying the problems of the needy in order to devise appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of modern social workers. In sum, although Nightingale may not have achieved all other goals during the Crimean War, her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers

In the last paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with...
A. Summarizing...
B. Refuting...
C. Analyzing...
D. Citing...
E. Correcting...

The answer is D. Citing...Can you please explain where the citation is?

My understanding of citing is to quote an authority to support an opinion. I see opinions and statements in the final paragraph, but I do not see a single supportive quote or reference. I was confident D. Citing... cannot be the answer!

GMATPrep's explanation is that the author cites Nightingale's letters. I see a reference to those letters, but a reference does not automatically qualify as a citation. For example, in which of her historic letters does Nightingale describe herself as being like a future educator? Clearly I do not currently agree with the answer, but I would really like to. Can someone please flesh out the explanation?

what I understand citation means 'acknowledgement' hence answer shloud be D.
Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the c   [#permalink] 29 Jan 2016, 03:34
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