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Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting

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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink] New post 07 Feb 2014, 13:39
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bluebell2014 wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
akankshasoneja wrote:
Can someone explain Q81?

Dear akankshasoneja
Here is the text of question #81.

81. The passage suggests that Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish provides evidence for which of the following views of women’s history?
(A) Women have lost power in relation to men since the colonial era.
(B) Women of the colonial era were not as likely to be concerned with their status as were women in the nineteenth century.
(C) The colonial era was not as favorable for women as some historians have believed.
(D) Women had more economic autonomy in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.
(E) Women’s occupations were generally more respected in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.


Tell me, what do you understand what do you not understand? What is your choice for the answer, and what don't you understand about the OA?

Mike :-)


I also puzzle about this question, I think this questions is linked to the last sentence of the passage

"In contrast, Buel and Buel’s biography provides ample raw material for questioning the myth, fostered by some historians, of a colonial golden age in the
eighteenth century but does not give the reader much guidance in analyzing the controversy over women’s status."

First, I don't understand what is "the myth" for Buel to question.
Second, "the myth" is modified by "fostered by some historian" means that some historian support "the myth"
Third," of a colonial golden age", at my first glance, I think it is to modify historians, but later I may wonder whether it is to modify "the myth"
Lastly, come to the choice (C), I think as I don't understand what is "the myth", then I don't know what the "some historian" believe, as a result, I don't know whether the colonial era was favorable for women or not

Greatly appreciate you can help to explain.

Dear bluebell2014,
The phrase "fostered by some historians" is set off in commas, as a non-vital modifier. For more on vital modifiers, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... modifiers/
This means, we can understand the meaning of what surrounds it by eliminating it:
"...ample raw material for questioning the myth of a colonial golden age in ....
This is a hugely important tip: when every any little piece of a sentence is set off by commas, simply remove that piece to understand better the grammatical relationships of everything else.

The myth, apparently, is that there was some kind of "golden age" for women in the 18th century colonial period --- that life was particular good for women during this period. Apparently some historians fostered this myth --- perhaps, say, some 19th century historians who didn't have access to the kind of information we have now. Those historians with not enough information might have thought that the 18th century colonial period was a wonderful time for women, but Buel & Buel have show conclusively that it was not. Thus, "The colonial era was not as favorable for women as some historians have believed." Answer = (C).

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink] New post 07 Feb 2014, 13:57
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prasannajeet wrote:
Hi Mike
Can help me out for q-77.....Why the answer is not "B"???
Rgds, Prasannajeet

VREN wrote:
Question 77 .
Why answer is not B ? is it because of the phrase " Exercise Power " ??? can anyone please explain ?

Dear prasannajeet & VREN,
I'm happy to respond. :-) It appears that bluebell2014 already gave an good answer to this, but I will say a little more.

Here's the question (which is RC #70 in the OG13)
77. The author of the passage mentions the supervision of schools primarily in order to
(A) remind readers of the role education played in the cultural changes of the nineteenth century in the United States
(B) suggest an area in which nineteenth-century American women were relatively free to exercise power
(C) provide an example of an occupation for which accurate data about women’s participation are difficult to obtain
(D) speculate about which occupations were considered suitable for United States women of the nineteenth century
(E) illustrate how the answers to questions about women’s status depend on particular contexts


First of all, let's look at the passage surrounding this ....
She [Lesbock] examines several different aspects of women’s status, helping to refine and resolve the issues. She concludes that while women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere. More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men.
So, first of all, tangible facts. Apparently at one time, schools were primarily the domain of women, and during the 19th century, that realm was taken over more and more by males, so women lost power in that particular arena. This is why (B) is wrong --- women did not remain powerful in schools: rather, they lost power.
Now, why was this fact mentioned? In order to answer a detail question, it's important to understand the entire argument, the point of the whole passage. The passage is about these two works, and how they reflect two different approaches to women's history. The passage is more about "what's the best way to study women's history?" then it is about real live women and their rights & struggles. This is a very academic passage: the author is more concerned with the writers and the academic debate than she is with the particulars of the historical periods mentioned. Even that sentence about schools begins with the clause: "More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference." In other words, the entire question of how powerful women were in the 19th century depends on the perspective we adopt: more powerful in the homes? more powerful in the workplace? more powerful with respect to income? more powerful with respect to land ownership? In other words, if we adopt different criteria for defining what constitutes more or less powerful, then the answer to the power question will change. In other words, "the answers to questions about women’s status depend on particular contexts." Answer = (E)

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink] New post 20 Mar 2014, 21:01
voodoochild wrote:
Please ignore...I got it.....Thanks!


Can you expalin, how did you get it ? I also answered E.
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink] New post 20 Mar 2014, 21:07
81. The passage suggests that Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish provides evidence for which of the following views of women’s history?
(A) Women have lost power in relation to men since the colonial era.
(B) Women of the colonial era were not as likely to be concerned with their status as were women in the nineteenth century.
(C) The colonial era was not as favorable for women as some historians have believed.
(D) Women had more economic autonomy in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.
(E) Women’s occupations were generally more respected in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.

Folks,
Need some explanation on this one. I was completely lost in this. Buel made little effort to place her story in context of recent histography. If that is the case, how can we know what evidence it provides on views of womens history.

I could not answer this question at all. Primary reason was I couldnt understand the question itself.

In all the answer choices it talked about womens status. But buel didnt mention anything about this. Now I understand that this is an inference question, but I still need some help in connecting the dots here.
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink] New post 30 Jun 2014, 07:17
mikemcgarry wrote:
voodoochild wrote:
Mike,Can you please explain me why Answer choice e) in Question #80 (OG12) is incorrect?

Quote:
80. The passage suggests that Lebsock believes that compared to nineteenth-century American women, eighteenth-century American women were
(A) in many respects less powerful in relation to men
(B) more likely to own real estate
(C) generally more economically independent
(D) more independent in conducting their private lives
(E) less likely to work as school superintendents

This is a very tricky question, because in the passage, the comparison goes one way, but in this question, the comparison goes in the opposite direction. In the passage, we get that, compared to eighteenth-century American women, nineteenth-century American women:
* gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, [but] they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere.
* lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men
* gained power in comparison with their previous status, owning a higher proportion of real estate, for example.

All of those are in the form --- starting from the eighteenth-century American women, how were things different for the nineteenth-century American women?

Then, the question turns things around ---- starting from the nineteenth-century American women, how were things different for the eighteenth-century American women? Everything quoted here has to be reversed --- "more" becomes "less", "gain" becomes "loss", and vice versa. What's extremely tricky about this question is: you have to take the opposite of everything stated in black and white.

Now, with all this in mind, look at (E).
The passage tells us, nineteenth-century American women less likely to work as school superintendents than were eighteenth-century American women. This means that eighteenth-century American women were more likely to work as school superintendents than were nineteenth-century American women. (E) is incorrect.

By contrast, look at (C)
The passage tells us, nineteenth-century American women "lost [autonomy] in many aspects of the economic sphere", so the nineteenth-century American women had less autonomy, less independence, than did the eighteenth-century American women. This means, the eighteenth-century American women were "generally more economically independent" than were the nineteenth-century American women. (C) is correct.

Does all this make sense? Please let me know if anyone reading this has any further questions.

Mike :-)


Hi Mike

Not clear on why D is not the correct option in line with your thought process. Could you please help me on that ?
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink] New post 30 Jun 2014, 09:55
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himanshujovi wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
80. The passage suggests that Lebsock believes that compared to nineteenth-century American women, eighteenth-century American women were
(A) in many respects less powerful in relation to men
(B) more likely to own real estate
(C) generally more economically independent
(D) more independent in conducting their private lives
(E) less likely to work as school superintendents

Hi Mike

Not clear on why D is not the correct option in line with your thought process. Could you please help me on that ?

Dear himanshujovi,
I'm happy to help. :-)

Here's what the passage says: "Lebsock, meanwhile, attempts not only to write the history of women in one southern community, but also to redirect two decades of historiographical debate as to whether women gained or lost status in the nineteenth century as compared with the eighteenth century. .... She examines several different aspects of women’s status, helping to refine and resolve the issues. She concludes that while women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere."
So, in going from the 18th century to the 19th century, "women gained autonomy ... in the private sphere," so 19th cent. women had more autonomy, more independence, in the private sphere than did the 18th cent. women.

Now, the tricky thing about the question is that the comparison is historically backwards --- "compared to nineteenth-century American women, eighteenth-century American women" were more what? Well, the 19th century women had more personal autonomy, so the 18th century women must have had less personal autonomy. Thus, (C) is the exact opposite of what the passage says.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink] New post 30 Jun 2014, 17:08
Oh yes Mike. Silly me. I worked out as per the trick of the question but ignored that for this option


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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2014, 06:35
infotalk wrote:
81. The passage suggests that Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish provides evidence for which of the following views of women’s history?
(A) Women have lost power in relation to men since the colonial era.
(B) Women of the colonial era were not as likely to be concerned with their status as were women in the nineteenth century.
(C) The colonial era was not as favorable for women as some historians have believed.
(D) Women had more economic autonomy in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.
(E) Women’s occupations were generally more respected in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.

Folks,
Need some explanation on this one. I was completely lost in this. Buel made little effort to place her story in context of recent histography. If that is the case, how can we know what evidence it provides on views of womens history.

I could not answer this question at all. Primary reason was I couldnt understand the question itself.

In all the answer choices it talked about womens status. But buel didnt mention anything about this. Now I understand that this is an inference question, but I still need some help in connecting the dots here.


Well, first off try, it's good that you see this question asking you to make an inference based on what's said in the passage.
Now, that does not mean that we need evidence in order to answer this answer.
We need to draw an inference from what's stated in the passage.

Here's the reasoning for Choice C:

"In contrast, Buel and Buel’s biography provides ample raw material for questioning the myth, fostered by some historians, of a colonial golden age in the
eighteenth century but does not give the reader much guidance in analyzing the controversy over women’s status."

When's a time period is described as "Golden Age", the era is thought to be as "very favorable".
Now, "fostered by some historians" = supported by some historians ...
We can rephrase that last sentence as: "B and B's Bio provides ample raw material that goes against the myth, supported by some historians, of a Very Favorable Colonial Time [for women] ... " --- This part is implied towards women of the Colonial Time.

Essentially, that last sentence is rephrased rather fancifully to give the reader a hard time in deciphering its underlying meaning.
When broken down piece-by-piece, Choice C rephrases that last sentence, perfectly.
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink] New post 06 Aug 2014, 23:53
hey please some one explain ans for q77 im confused between d and e
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink] New post 07 Aug 2014, 09:33
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komalkansal wrote:
hey please some one explain ans for q77 im confused between d and e

Dear komalkansal,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

Here's the question again (which is RC #70 in the OG13)
77. The author of the passage mentions the supervision of schools primarily in order to
(A) remind readers of the role education played in the cultural changes of the nineteenth century in the United States
(B) suggest an area in which nineteenth-century American women were relatively free to exercise power
(C) provide an example of an occupation for which accurate data about women’s participation are difficult to obtain
(D) speculate about which occupations were considered suitable for United States women of the nineteenth century
(E) illustrate how the answers to questions about women’s status depend on particular contexts


Here's the context in which that detail is mentioned ....
More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men. Yet women also gained power in comparison with their previous status, ...

Think about what is happening right there in the passage. We get the HUGE signpost "More importantly ...", which means the author is about to say something he or she considers extremely important. That should be like a giant flashing neon sign in the passage. The author of the passage says that "[Lesbock] shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference." In other words, the answer to questions such as "were women better off in the 18th century or the 19th century?" are not crystal clear because they depend on where we look: looking at different indicators of social status and power will give us different answers to such questions. The author of the passage makes this extremely important point, and then cites two examples --- the supervision of schools example, which shows women losing power in the 19th century, and then the real estate example, which shows women gaining power in the 19th century. How powerful were women in the 19th century? It depends on where we look.

That's precisely why (E) is a much much better answer. The author cited the supervision of schools example to support his or her contention, the statement in bold above, and choice (E) restates the statement in bold. It restates something we absolutely know the author of the passage considered extremely important.

The author of this passage is not at all interested in speculating about occupations of women in the 19th century. The author of this passage is concerned with comparing the relative strengths of two books by different sets of authors, and the "more importantly" statement is a HUGE statement about something that one author did very well. Choice (D) plays on the confusion some readers have been the concerns of the author of this passage vs. the concerns of the authors discussed in the passage.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting [#permalink] New post 08 Aug 2014, 05:19
thanks mike :) your explanation is great ..cleared y doubt completely :)
Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting   [#permalink] 08 Aug 2014, 05:19
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