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# Until recently it was thought that ink used before the

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Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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24 May 2009, 06:02
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Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenth-century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the map’s authenticity.
The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that
(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted
(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not
(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document
(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known
(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible
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24 May 2009, 07:10
IMO D, such long passage seems easier for me to reach the best answer
The argument is: the finding of titanium in ink before 16 century help:
- Identify the printer identification of B36: Gutenberg
- Identify the date of the Vinland map precisely with no doubt anymore: 15 century

To weaken: prove that regardless of the presence of titanium in the 's ink, we can still identify the identification of printer of B36 and the publish date of Vinland map precisely

Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenth-century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the map’s authenticity.
The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that
(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted --> irrelevant
(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not -->out of scope
(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document -->not strong enough to weaken
(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known -->the best. The bold face indicates that regardless of the presence of titanium, B36 and Vinland map can prove their worthness of their own
(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible -->irrelevant
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24 May 2009, 07:20
I vote C. the passage infers that B-36 was printed by gutenberg simply because it had titanium in the ink, where that ink was also used in the vinland map. The map could have been forged in the seventeenth century using titanium-rich ink just as easily as it could have been in the fifteenth. I think the major criticism there is the lack of evidence, it claims that the titanium in the vinland map can no longer be a cause of doubt of its authenticity, and that the titanium "strongly" supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by gutenberg, but both of these claims are too much of a stretch "solely" on the presence of titanium in the ink, there must be other factors.

A) it does not really claim that the ink was or was not restricted, it could easily be interpreted that titanium just wasn't around to make the superior ink used in the sixteenth century on.

B) completely irrelevant, the evidence that supports the claims the stimulus makes does not involve the author's/artist's knowledge of what is in his/her ink.

D) equally irrelevant, claim never made.

E) sort of true, but doesn't really criticize the argument made. If the discovery was made after that of the gutenberg bible, then the last statement would be false, but the evidence could still not be used as a reason for doubting its authenticity, whether it be discovered ten years later or before, but the no longer would still stand corrected. I like C better tho.
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24 May 2009, 07:26
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24 May 2009, 07:51
dk94588 wrote:

I don't know what you mean, but it seems that you misinterpret D:

(D)both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known

Paraphrase as:

Both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map can be used independently (not dependend on any other factors - means Titanium) to determine precisely about the date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them

From this, can easily choose it the correct choice
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24 May 2009, 13:05
"whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known" the second half of answer choice D infers that the date of creation and name of creator are irrelevant. This does not criticize the claim made in the stimulus, that the titanium content contributes to the theory that gutenberg printed B-36, and that the Vinland Map's authenticity cannot be questioned on the basis of titanium content anymore.

C is the only choice that does criticize it, because it states that titanium-content ALONE is not enough to make those kinds of inferences as to the date of creation and creator of these writings. Since titanium content is the only reason that is discussed, it weakens the argument the MOST, the fact that the argument is weak is irrelevant because it is the only one that does in fact criticize it. I mean if you are mentioning hypotheses and doubts, you can obviously conclude that there is not enough information to prove authorship on their own.
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24 May 2009, 16:14
I will go with C and completely agree with dk94588. what is OA?
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25 May 2009, 19:31
OA is not C and D

I even dont understand what the question asked!
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25 May 2009, 21:08
The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that --> Man, this is a flaw of reasoning type, not a weaken. So hurrily skimming the question misunderstanding me a totally different scope

In this case, I will choose E:

- The fact: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in ...

- The argument: shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the map’s authenticity --> this means that titanium in ink of Vinland Map was discovered before, but at that time, people didn't believe that Vinland map was created in 15th century because of the presence of titanium in its ink -->countering the fact above that titanium is just recently discovered in 2 document Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible, but not in Vinland Map

and E notes the point:

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible
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25 May 2009, 23:07
Minheequang wrote:
The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that --> Man, this is a flaw of reasoning type, not a weaken. So hurrily skimming the question misunderstanding me a totally different scope

In this case, I will choose E:

The OA is not E
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26 May 2009, 01:02
sounds like the answer must be A
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26 May 2009, 13:42
please explain in detail, like give the stated reasons the OA is not C or D.
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27 May 2009, 19:57
OA is A
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29 May 2009, 17:04
sondenso wrote:
OA is not C and D

I even dont understand what the question asked!

I am also with you

From where did you get this question?
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31 May 2009, 08:54
this question has to be from an unreliable source. I have never seen anything that confusing, GMAT or otherwise. It was prob from CR 1000 or something.
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07 Oct 2009, 08:57
A is flaw showing contradiction .

Titanium in the ink is very restricted and hence Bible is printed by J G .

15 th century Vinland MAP has titanium in the ink .Titanium in the ink is prevalent in 15 th century .

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27 Oct 2009, 14:40
hello guys

I liked that question, but I do not agree with the OA.

Issue: in only two books were found titanium
Argument: they were printed by the same printer

It is flawed because we cannot infer just because one element is in two books (and no other was found) that they were printed by the same person.

C

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23 May 2011, 07:35
I think this link throws light on the OA - A.

http://www.urch.com/forums/gmat-critica ... -29-a.html
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24 May 2011, 03:19
filtered to A and C.

A indeed is something which can't be understood naturally in first go.
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Re: Inks   [#permalink] 24 May 2011, 03:19
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