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Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 1 - European Leaders

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Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 1 - European Leaders [#permalink] New post 09 Dec 2011, 10:54
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55% (02:05) correct 45% (01:04) wrong based on 162 sessions
This question is first practice problem in the meaning based questions and tests proper usage of modifiers. Correct and best explanation will get a Kudos from us and a free subscription for 1 month to our[highlight]OG Verbal 2 solutions for Sentence Correction[/highlight]. OG Verbal 2 solutions contain solutions to all SC questions using e-GMAT 3 step process- amounting to 14 hrs of audio visual content. Currently 60 solutions are uploaded. The set will be completed by the end of the month.


European leaders, who met until the early hours of Friday, agreed for signing, with the head of the World Bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it to enforce stricter fiscal and financial discipline in their future budgets.

    A. for signing, with the head of the World Bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it
    B. to sign an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank who would require them
    C. to sign an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank, requiring them
    D. to sign, with the head of the world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require them
    E. for signing an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the World Bank that would require them

We will provide the official answer in a couple of hrs.

Also Check out 5 strategies that GMAT uses to distort the meaning of the original sentence
5-strategies-that-gmat-uses-to-distort-meaning-124296.html
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by egmat on 09 Dec 2011, 22:16, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 1 - European Leaders [#permalink] New post 09 Dec 2011, 14:24
European leaders, who met until the early hours of Friday, agreed for signing, with the head of the World Bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it to enforce stricter fiscal and financial discipline in their future budgets.
----

Here is my explanation...
1. Agreed for signing is WRONG , it should be agreed to sign

After this correction , our sentence looks like this...

European leaders, who met until the early hours of Friday, agreed to sign.

we can ask our self here , question like .. Agreed to sign what or Agreed to sign with whom..

this is answer in the next part... " with the head of the World Bank " ... i think this is kind of adverbial phrase...

moving on in sentence .... 'that would require it' .... Here 'it' is "WRONG". 'it' is referring to Leaders , so it should be 'them'...

All these errors are properly rectified in choice 'D'
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 1 - European Leaders [#permalink] New post 09 Dec 2011, 20:00
IMO C should be the answer. Here is my reasoning:

"Agreed for" is unidiomatic. "Agreed to" is the proper idiom. That leaves us with options B, C & D. (A & E are out).
B - "who" is typically used for people. In option B, it applies to bank. Even though we mention the head of the world bank (who would be an individual), the "who" directly modifies only the "bank", not the "head of the world bank". That is why B is wrong.

D - The prepositional phrase set off by commas is not optional. If we put it in commas as done in option D, then it becomes optional. For example, the "who met until...Friday" part has been put off in commas. In this case, we do not necessarily require this piece of information to make logical sense of the sentence. The sentence would still stand despite the removal of the aforementioned phrase. However, the "with the head of the world bank" phrase is not optional. This part is very much required in the sentence. Who did the leaders sign the treaty with? This is the question that is answered by the phrase above. Hence, it cannot be put off by commas as done in option D.

In C, the leaders agreed to sign a treaty with the head of the world bank. This treaty required the leaders to enforce stricter fiscal and financial discipline in their future budgets. Hence, "requiring them" is appropriate because the "requiring" modifies treaty and "them" refers to "leaders".
This is how I understood and solved the problem. I may, however, be mistaken. Please post the OA with explanation. TIA.
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 1 - European Leaders [#permalink] New post 09 Dec 2011, 21:42
I am with D

A and E are out as agreed for is unidiomatic

B---->who refers to bank which is awkward

C------>we don't know what "requiring" them is referring to

D---->correct

Plz correct me if i am wrong and also please share the OA with justification

Thanks in advance
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 1 - European Leaders [#permalink] New post 12 Dec 2011, 08:51
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European leaders, who met until the early hours of Friday, agreed for signing, with the head of the World Bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it to enforce stricter fiscal and financial discipline in their future budgets.
A. for signing, with the head of the World Bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it
B. to sign an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank who would require them
C. to sign an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank, requiring them
D. to sign, with the head of the world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require them
E. for signing an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the World Bank that would require them

Here is the official explanation for this question:
Image

Understand the Meaning of the Original Sentence


The sentence states the following:
• European leaders met until Friday morning
• They agreed to sign a treaty – an intergovernmental treaty.
• They agreed to sign this treaty with the head of the World Bank.
• This treaty would require the leaders to enforce stricter fiscal and financial discipline in their future budgets.

Find the Errors in the Original Sentence


• European leaders,
o who met until the early hours of Friday,
agreed for signing, with the head of the World Bank, an intergovernmental treaty
that would require it
to enforce stricter fiscal and financial discipline in their future budgets.

The sentence has been simplified into its clauses as shown above. All subject verb pairs are accounted for. The pronoun “it” in underlined portion of the sentence logically refers to “European leaders” but does not agree in number with its antecedent. Thus, this sentence has pronoun-antecedent number agreement error. Notice that the other pronoun “their” in non-underlined portion also logically refers to “European leaders”. Context of the sentence requires both these pronouns to refer to the “leaders”. Furthermore, the expression “for signing” is not appropriate. The sentence expresses an intention here – leaders agreed to do something. Thus, the more appropriate expression is “to sign”.

Review Answer choices to do POE


Choice B – Even though this choice is grammatically correct, it is not the correct answer since it distorts the meaning of the original sentence. The sentence per choice B implies that the head of the World Bank would require the leaders to enforce stricter rules. Even though this is logical, it is not what the original sentence states. Per the original sentence, it is the treaty that will enforce these regulations.

Choice C – This choice is grammatically correct but it no longer communicates the logical intended meaning of the sentence. By changing the “that modifier” into a “verb-ing modifier”, this sentence now implies that merely by agreeing to sign this treaty would result in enforcement of stricter controls and regulations. This is clearly not the logical sense.

Choice D – Correct choice.

Choice E – This choice repeats the “for signing” error as in choice A. Furthermore, the structure of this choice is such that now it is no longer clear what would require the leaders to enforce stricter controls. – the World Bank or the treaty. Notice carefully the change in placement of the modifiers in this choice.

TAKE AWAYS



1. Understand the intended meaning of the sentence well before you review the answer choices. If you do not do so, you may mark the seemingly correct choice as the correct answer when this choice in fact changes the meaning of the sentence.
2. Notice carefully any change in the modifier structure itself. The changed modifier may change the meaning of the sentence while still being grammatically correct and/or logically sound.
3. Use “to verb” to present intention.

Note: The attachment at http://gmatclub.com/forum/5-strategies-that-gmat-uses-to-distort-meaning-124296.html contains the document with Strategies for Meaning Change and the questions with detailed solutions. Note that this is a "living" document. We add the strategies, questions, and explanations in this document as we add them on the forum. So be sure to download the latest version!
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Last edited by egmat on 24 Jul 2012, 07:24, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 1 - European Leaders [#permalink] New post 12 Dec 2011, 09:29
Thanks e-gmat. Very nice explanation. I think this is the most basic way to approach SC :D
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 1 - European Leaders [#permalink] New post 13 Dec 2011, 16:31
Hurray got the candidate Its D :)
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 1 - European Leaders [#permalink] New post 22 Dec 2012, 03:39
@e gmat :
D. to sign,[u] with the head of the world bank[/u], an intergovernmental treaty that would require them
as the modifier is in between two comma ,so it may modify either sign or an intergovernmental treaty => creating some ambiguity .(few of ur articles have addressed the this things)
so please clarify this point to me ....
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 1 - European Leaders [#permalink] New post 17 Jun 2014, 04:06
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 1 - European Leaders   [#permalink] 17 Jun 2014, 04:06
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