European leaders, who met until the early hours of Friday, agreed for signing, with the head of the World Bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it to enforce stricter fiscal and financial discipline in their future budgets.
A. for signing, with the head of the World Bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require it
B. to sign an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank who would require them
C. to sign an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the world bank, requiring them
D. to sign, with the head of the world bank, an intergovernmental treaty that would require them
E. for signing an intergovernmental treaty with the head of the World Bank that would require them
Here is the official explanation for this question:
Understand the Meaning of the Original Sentence
The sentence states the following:
• European leaders met until Friday morning
• They agreed to sign a treaty – an intergovernmental treaty.
• They agreed to sign this treaty with the head of the World Bank.
• This treaty would require the leaders to enforce stricter fiscal and financial discipline in their future budgets.
Find the Errors in the Original Sentence
• European leaders
o who met
until the early hours of Friday,
• agreed for signing, with the head of the World Bank, an intergovernmental treaty
• that would require it
to enforce stricter fiscal and financial discipline in their future budgets.
The sentence has been simplified into its clauses as shown above. All subject verb pairs are accounted for. The pronoun “it” in underlined portion of the sentence logically refers to “European leaders” but does not agree in number with its antecedent. Thus, this sentence has pronoun-antecedent number agreement error. Notice that the other pronoun “their” in non-underlined portion also logically refers to “European leaders”. Context of the sentence requires both these pronouns to refer to the “leaders”. Furthermore, the expression “for signing” is not appropriate. The sentence expresses an intention here – leaders agreed to do something. Thus, the more appropriate expression is “to sign”.
Review Answer choices to do POE
Choice B – Even though this choice is grammatically correct, it is not the correct answer since it distorts the meaning of the original sentence. The sentence per choice B implies that the head of the World Bank would require the leaders to enforce stricter rules. Even though this is logical, it is not what the original sentence states. Per the original sentence, it is the treaty that will enforce these regulations.
Choice C – This choice is grammatically correct but it no longer communicates the logical intended meaning of the sentence. By changing the “that modifier” into a “verb-ing modifier”, this sentence now implies that merely by agreeing to sign this treaty would result in enforcement of stricter controls and regulations. This is clearly not the logical sense.
Choice D – Correct choice.
Choice E – This choice repeats the “for signing” error as in choice A. Furthermore, the structure of this choice is such that now it is no longer clear what would require the leaders to enforce stricter controls. – the World Bank or the treaty. Notice carefully the change in placement of the modifiers in this choice.
1. Understand the intended meaning of the sentence well before you review the answer choices. If you do not do so, you may mark the seemingly correct choice as the correct answer when this choice in fact changes the meaning of the sentence.
2. Notice carefully any change in the modifier structure itself. The changed modifier may change the meaning of the sentence while still being grammatically correct and/or logically sound.
3. Use “to verb” to present intention.
Note: The attachment at http://gmatclub.com/forum/5-strategies-that-gmat-uses-to-distort-meaning-124296.html
contains the document with Strategies for Meaning Change and the questions with detailed solutions. Note that this is a "living" document. We add the strategies, questions, and explanations in this document as we add them on the forum. So be sure to download the latest version!
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