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# Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1

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Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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VERB-ING MODIFIERS

If your answer to Julio's question is "No", then this article will surely help you. Verb-ing modifiers are one of the most heavily tested concepts in GMAT, and needless to mention one of the most dreaded concepts as well. The usage of this modifier often creates confusions because the function of a verb-ing modifier changes with the change in its placement in a sentence. This article is aimed at simplifying the usage of this “dreaded” modifier and helping you understand the functionality of this modifier better.

But before that, we have a small warm up exercise. Attempt this short quiz and see how well you understand this concept currently.

1. Students have been throwing away healthy meals made available in school cafeteria by The Los Angeles Unified School District and bringing their own junk food to school, and these forced the district to bring back some of the foods it worked so hard to replace.

A. school, and these forced
B. schools, which forced
C. schools, forcing

2. In three months, biologist Glauco Machado gathered enough information about large numbers of a relatively unstudied order of arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him and to publish his first scientific paper.

A. arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him and to publish
B. arachnids, persuading an ant specialist at the university to advise him and publishing
C. arachnids persuading an ant specialist at the university to advise him and publishing

1. C.
2. A.
(Detailed solutions in sections RULE SET #1 and RULE SET #2 respectively. Rule Set #2 will be covered in a separate article soon to follow.)

UNDERSTANDING VERB-ING MODIFIERS

As the name suggests, verb-ing modifiers are the words that are constituted from “verbs” by adding “ing” to them. Essentially, these modifiers modify a particular entity in the sentence. The modification depends upon the placement of the modifier in the sentence, i.e. where and how they appear in the sentence. Since these modifiers are made from verbs, they denote action.

For example:
Mary cooked delicious food, using fresh condiments.

In this sentence, the verb-ing modifier “using fresh condiments” denotes an action. It communicates the meaning - Mary used fresh condiments.

PLACEMENT OF VERB-ING MODIFIERS

The function played by a verb-ing modifier depends upon where and how it appears in the sentence. The verb-ing modifiers can take three places in a sentence:
1. Placed after a clause PRECEDED by a comma,
2. Placed after a clause NOT PRECEDED by a comma,
3. In the beginning of a clause followed by a comma.
Needless to say that the function of the verb-ing modifier changes with the change in its placement in regards to the three structures mentioned above. Let’s discuss the first structure that brings us to our first rule set for this modifier.

The verb-ing modifier can be placed after a clause and separated from the preceding clause by a comma.

Mary made a beautiful bouquet, arranging rare exotic flowers in certain symmetry.

This sentence means that Mary made a beautiful bouquet. And how did she do it? This question is answered by the verb-ing modifier “arranging rare exotic flowers in certain symmetry”. i.e. Mary made a beautiful bouquet BY ARRANGING rare exotic flowers in certain symmetry.

In this sentence, verb-ing modifier is preceded by a comma. This means that this modifier modifies the preceding clause. In this sentence, the verb-ing modifier is presenting additional information about the preceding clause.

GMAT like SENTENCE: Presenting Additional Information

• For decades now, Illinois Natural History Survey biologists in aluminum skiffs have scooted up and down the thinly wooded banks of the Illinois river and monitored local fish, catching, recording, and releasing approximately 150,000 of them a year.

This sentence means that for a very long time now, the INHS biologists have gone to the banks of the Illinois river in aluminum skiffs and have monitored local fish. And how they have monitored local fish? They have done so by catching, recording, and releasing some 150,000 fish a year.

In this sentence, all the three verb-ing modifiers (parallel entities) appear in the sentence after the clause preceded by comma. Hence, they modify the preceding action (have) monitored. Per the context of this sentence, we know that the three verb-ing modifiers are presenting additional information about the preceding action. The three modifiers explain how the biologist did the job of monitoring local fish. They monitored local fish by catching them, putting them in records, and releasing them back in the river.

SIMPLE EXAMPLES: Presenting result

This sentence tells us that Mary made a beautiful bouquet. It further explains that this action resulted in Mary winning a lot of accolades from every one.
In this sentence, the verb-ing modifier appears after the clause preceded by a comma. This means the modifier will modify the entire preceding clause. In this sentence "winning accolades from every one" is presenting the result of the preceding clause.

GMAT like SENTENCE: Presenting Result

Let us bring our “warm-up exercise” question #1 here. Let us solve that GMAT like question to see why the correct answer is correct and how this rule set is applicable in that question.

Q#1 - WHY THE CORRECT ANSWER IS CORRECT

• Students have been throwing away healthy meals made available in school cafeteria by The Los Angeles Unified School District and bringing their own junk food to school and these forced the district to bring back some of the foods it worked so hard to replace.

We will apply the e-gmat three-step process to solve this problem.

STEP 1: MEANING ANALYSIS

This sentence says that Los Angeles Unified School District added healthy meals to the school cafeteria. But students have been throwing away these healthy meals and have been bringing their own junk food. As a result of these actions, the district was forced to bring back some of the foods it worked so hard to replace.

STEP 2: ERROR ANALYSIS

Let’s now split the sentence into clauses to spot the errors:
Students have been throwing away healthy meals made available in school cafeteria by The Los Angeles Unified School District and bringing their own junk food to school
• and these forced the district to bring back some of the foods
o it worked so hard to replace.

In the second clause, pronoun “these” have been used to refer the actions of “throwing healthy meals” and “bringing junk food”. This usage is not correct because “these” is a pronoun. It can only refer to a noun or another pronoun. It cannot be used to refer to an action or a clause.

STEP 3: POE

A. school and these forced: Incorrect for the reason discussed during error analysis.

B. schools, which forced: Incorrect. Notice that “which” is a noun modifier that refers to the preceding noun or noun phrase. In this choice, “which” is referring to “schools”. This is illogical. Also notice that “which” is a relative pronoun that abides by the same rules for pronoun. Hence, “which” cannot be used to present the result of the preceding clause.

C. Schools, forcing: Correct. The verb-ing modifier “forcing” appears in this sentence preceded by a comma. This means that “forcing” is modifying the preceding clause. Per the context of the sentence, comma + forcing, in this choice, is correctly presenting the result of the preceding clause.

Applying RULE SET #1 on OG 12 #47

Five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland this summer, bringing to 34 the number of wild birds successfully raised since transplants from Norway began in 1975.

(A) bringing
(B) and brings
(C) and it brings
(D) and it brought
(E) and brought

We will solve this question, using e-gmat three-step process.

STEP 1: MEANING ANALYSIS
The sentence says that this summer, five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland. This action brought to 34 the total number of wild birds that have been successfully raised since transplants from Norway started in 1975.

STEP 2: ERROR ANALYSIS

Let us split the sentence into clauses to spot the errors.
Five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland this summer, bringing to 34 the number of wild birds successfully raised
o since transplants from Norway began in 1975.

The only word underlined in this sentence is the verb-ing modifier “bringing”. This modifier appears after the main clause preceded by a comma. This means it modifies the preceding clause. The use of this modifier is correct here because per the context, it presents the result of the preceding clause - one of the functions of the verb-ing when preceded by a comma. Hence, there is no error in this sentence. This sentence is correct as is.

STEP 3: POE

Through this step we will find out why the other answer choices are incorrect.

(A) bringing: Correct as explained during error analysis.

(B) and brings: Incorrect. “brings” is not the correct verb tense to refer to an action that took place in the past. Furthermore, use of ‘comma + and’ to connect two entities in a list – here two verbs of the same subject - is not correct.

(C) and it brings: Incorrect.
i. Singular pronoun “it” neither can refer to plural “eagles” nor can refer to the preceding clause. A pronoun can only refer to a noun or another pronoun.
ii. Repeats the same verb tense error as in Choice B.

(D) and it brought: Incorrect. Repeats the same pronoun error as in Choice D.

(E) and brought: Incorrect. Use of ‘comma + and’ to connect two entities in a list – here two verbs of the same subject - is not correct.

A POINT TO REMEMBER

As mentioned earlier, verb-ing modifiers are made from “verbs” and they denote action. Now, any action needs a doer. In the same way, the verb-ing modifiers also associate with the subjects of the preceding clause. What we must keep in mind is that the action denoted by verb-ing must make sense with the subject of the clause. The use of verb-ing is correct only if it makes sense with the subject of the clause it is modifying.

For example:
Sachin Tendulkar played an exceptionally outstanding innings, making the team win gloriously.

The sentence means that Sachin played a superbly good innings. And the result of this action led to the victory of the team in a glorious manner. So, the verb-ing modifier “making” preceded by a comma is presenting the result of the preceding clause.

Now, “making” is an action that needs a subject. Per the rule, it will associate with the subject of the preceding clause. Now, the subject of the preceding clause “Sachin” did the action of playing a superb innings. So the subject is the doer. Hence, “making” will associate with the same subject and will suggest that that Sachin “made” the team win. This association perfectly makes sense. Because Sachin did make the team win by playing a superb innings. Hence, the usage of the verb-ing modifier is absolutely correct here.

Now let’s take this example:
Joe became the CFO of the company, increasing his pay significantly.

Here the verb-ing modifier “increasing” appears after the clause and is preceded by a comma. This means that this modifier will modify the preceding clause either by presenting additional information about the preceding clause or by presenting the result of the preceding clause.

Now, per the intended meaning of the sentence, Joe became the CFO of the company. This event led to increase in his salary. Now, the subject of the sentence is “Joe”. However, he is not the doer of the verb “became”. He did not make himself the CFO of the company. Now look at the verb-ing modifier “increasing”. Since verb-ing modifier denotes an action and hence associates with a verb, “increasing” associates with “Joe”. The sentence thus means that Joe became the CFO of the company and as a result he increased his salary. We know that this is not even a possibility. What resulted in Joe’s increased salary is the event of his becoming the CFO.
Hence, even if this sentence appears to be written in appropriate construction, it is incorrect since here the verb-ing modifier does not make sense with the subject of the preceding clause. This sentence can be written correctly as follows:

Joe became the CFO of the company, a move that increased his pay significantly.

OG QUESTIONS YOU CAN PRACTICE USING THESE RULE SETS

Apply these rule sets to the following OG questions. For more practice, register for free at e-gmat.com and quizzes available in the trial concepts.
OG 12# 30, 65, 94
OG Verbal Review 2# 14, 78,
OG 13# 97

Watch out for our next article in the “Verb-ing Modifiers Series” to learn about the other rule-sets.

Thanks.
Attachments

Verb-ing Modifier Article 1 - GC.pdf [557.43 KiB]

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Last edited by egmat on 03 May 2016, 06:49, edited 6 times in total.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2012, 08:27
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thangvietnam wrote:
Pls, give us full explanation/rule for the cases above. Thank you.

Hi there,

We can decide when to use “to verb” and when to use “for verb-ing” by understanding the context of the sentence.
a. Use “to verb” to present purpose or intention of any action.
b. Use “for verb-ing” to not present the purpose or intention. Use this expression to show that the action is somehow related to the “verb-ing”.

Now let’s apply these guidelines to the official sentences that you have provided:

New genetic evidence - together with recent studies of elephants' skeletons, tusks, and other anatomical features - provide compelling support for classifying Africa's forest elephants and its savanna elephants as separate species.

D. provides compelling support for classifying
E. provides compelling support to classify

So how to choose between the two? Let’s first take choice E.
In this choice “to verb” has been used “provides compelling support”. So the sentence is saying that new genetic evidence provide compelling support with the intention to classify something. Does this make sense? New evidence provides support with some intention? This meaning certainly does not make any logical sense. Hence, choice E is eliminated.

So now, even if we are left with choice D, which is the correct answer, let’s see why it is correct. The sentence per this choice means new genetic evidence provides support. And what does it provide support for? It provides support for classifying something. So providing support is related to classifying something. This makes complete logical sense. So choice D indeed is the correct answer.

Now let’s take a look at the other question:

Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the National Academy of Sciences has urged the nation to revamp computer security procedures, institute new emergency response teams, creating a special nongovernment organization to take charge of computer security planning.

(D) and create a special nongovernment organization for taking
(E) and create a special nongovernment organization to take

Let’s analyze choice E first. So the NAS has urged the nation to take three steps. The purpose is presented in “to verb”. The NAS wants the nation to take charge of computer security planning because the computers in the US are not safe. This meaning perfectly makes sense. The intended intention is clearly communicated. Hence choice E is correct.

Choice D fails to communicate this intention. It merely says that NAS urged the nation to do a few things for doing something else. This makes choice D incorrect.
So first let the context of the sentence guide you to the intended meaning and then apply the guidelines to see usage of “to verb” communicates that intended meaning or usage of “for verb-ing” does so.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2012, 08:30
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Dear Mr. Thang,

Thank you for the praise. We have a free concept on importance of meaning. Just register for a free account by clicking here. You also have a free concept on Verb-ing modifiers in the free trial that other aspects of verbing modifiers as well.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2012, 12:27
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Hi there,
Thank you so very much. We really appreaciate it. Your feedback is really crucial for us. Thanks again.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2012, 05:43
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Just wanted to add one more rule to the Summary that :

comma +ing modifier takes the tense of the preceding modified clause.

Thanks
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2012, 12:31
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thangvietnam wrote:
Thank you, but I am still confused.

Can I think that
"for doing" in D modifies "support" and is logic
and
"to do" in E modified "provide" and is not logic

Pls, help explain of why D is wrong? Thank you very much.
@thangvietnam, If the intent of first verb(main verb in the clause) is to 1) prove the second verb or 2) reach the goal expressed in second verb or 3) express intent for second verb(infinitive), then use the infinitive form, otherwise use the other form than infinitive form.

This can be proven by a general grammar principle with infinitives, which says that infinitive verb form expressed like "in order to [infinitive verb form]" can be reduced to "to [infinitive verb form]". Note that "in order to" is a setting or plot here suggesting intent or goal. Putting "in order to" helps in isolating milk(correct choice) and water(wrong choice) in the sentence.

Eg. Japan must overcome serious obstacles in order to keep its economy in gear. -->can be reduced to--> Japan must overcome serious obstacles to keep its economy in gear.
We study atoms in order to find out how world works. --> can be reduced to-->We study atoms to find out how world works.

Now, let us see both of the problems, by applying the above logic, but by some reverse engineering. Apply "in order to" in place of "to" and check the validity and meaning.

New genetic evidence - together with recent studies of elephants' skeletons, tusks, and other anatomical features - provide compelling support for classifying Africa's forest elephants and its savanna elephants as separate species.
D. provides compelling support for classifying
E. provides compelling support to classify

Place "in order to" in place of "to" in choice E to check.
It will become "Evidence provides compelling support in order to classify elephants".
Clearly, the intent/aim of first verb provides is not to classify(2nd verb/infinitive form) the the elephants from the preceding sentence, so E can be discarded and D becomes winner.

Let's take second example for this reverse engineering technique.

Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the National Academy of Sciences has urged the nation to revamp computer security procedures, institute new emergency response teams, creating a special nongovernment organization to take charge of computer security planning.
(D) and create a special nongovernment organization for taking
(E) and create a special nongovernment organization to take

Place "in order to" in place of "to" in choice E to check. E will become "NAS has urged the nation to create a special nongovernment organization in order to take charge of computer security planning. This makes perfect sense as first verb create has been done with the intent to take charge of (2nd verb/infinitive). This clearly makes E winner.

Hope This Helps
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2012, 08:16
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pavanpuneet wrote:
Shraddha, Can you explain the steps to arrive at the correct answer for this question? sc-law-44878.html

What does the modifier in the first sentence, making it possible modify?

Hi Pavan,

On account of a law passed in 1933, making it a crime punishable by imprisonment that a United States citizen hold gold in the form of bullion or coins, immigrants found that on arrival in the United States they had to surrender all of the gold they had brought with them.

The sentence does not convey the meaning so clearly because of the construction. So let’s first understand what the sentence means. A law was passed in 1933. According to this law, it was a crime punishable by imprisonment for a US citizen to possess gold in the form of bullion or coins. Because of this law, immigrants found that they had to surrender all the gold they had brought with them on the arrival in the US.

Now let’s do the error analysis:
1. “a crime that…” is not an idiomatic expression. We need to say “a crime for a US citizen”.
2. Accordingly, “… a US citizen hold gold” will change into “… a US citizen to hold gold”.

The verb-ing modifier here appears after “law passed in 1933”. Now “passed in 1933” is a verb-ed modifier that is modifying “law”. The verb-ing modifier is also modifying “law”, a slightly far away noun. As such, we don’t have modification issue here.

POE:

A. On account of a law passed in 1993, making it a crime punishable by imprisonment that a United States citizen hold: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

B. With a law passed in 1933 that makes it a crime punishable by imprisonment that a United States citizen hold: Incorrect.
1. The sentence now seems to suggest that the immigrants arrived in the US with the “law”.
2. All the errors of Choice A are repeated.

C. A law passed in 1933 that made it a crime punishable by imprisonment for a United States citizen holding: Incorrect.
1. There is no verb for the subject “A law”. We have a fragment here.
2. “holding” should be “to hold”.

D. Because of a law passed in 1933 making it a crime punishable by imprisonment for a United States citizen to hold: Correct. This choice makes the sentence structure correct so that the meaning is clear.

E. Due to a law being passed in 1933 that makes it a crime punishable by imprisonment for a United States citizen to hold: Incorrect.
1. Use of “Due to” is incorrect.
2. Use of “being passed” is not correct.

Take Away:
1. The sentence structure should be such that it conveys the intended meaning clearly.
2. Always use correct idiomatic expressions for correct and clear meaning of the sentence.
3. Modifiers must make sense with the entities they modify.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2012, 19:13
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great article.

I wish you to explain more.

regarding verb-ing used after a clause and comma, I have a question. In this case I see that the meaning relation between verb-ing and the previous clause is varied. The meaning relation is not about HOW the action in the previous clause is performed or WHAT RESUTL the action in the previous clause creates. I wish e-gmat experts show more kinds of meaning relation. This thing helps understand the intended meaning and so critical to success on SC.
I see that on many og and gmatprep questions, the meaning relation is not about HOW and RESULT .

Thank you.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2012, 07:15
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the following is an example.
New genetic evidence-together with recent studies of elephants' skeletons, tusks, and other anatomical features-/provide compelling support for classifying /Africa's forest elephants and its savanna elephants as separate species.

C.provides compelling support to the classification of

D.provides compelling support for classifying

E.provides compelling support to classify

Q 11, og 11

Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the National Academy of Sciences has urged the nation to revamp computer security procedure, institute new emergency response teams, /

D, and create a special nongovernment organization for taking

E, and create a special nongovernment organization to take

e-gmat experts, you are great. Pls, give us full explanation/rule for the cases above. Thank you.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2012, 12:01
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Hi Himanshu,

Thanks for this addition. This point is covered in our concept og Verb-ing Modifiers.

I would just like to briefly explain why comma + verb-ing modifier takes the tense of the preceding modifying clause. It does so because the verb tense of the main clause defines the tense of the sentence. So that tense sets the context of the timeframe for that sentence.

Since the main verb sets the tense of the main action in the sentence, all the other actions by default takes the same timeframe. Now, verb-ing modifiers are not verbs but they certainly denotes some action and hence, take the same tense of the verb in clause modified by the verb-ing modifier.

Thanks.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2012, 12:07
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pavanpuneet wrote:
Based on POE, given that the sentence says them, it should modify plural subject, and are producing in other choice seemed inferior so went for E. However, I am not convinced how structure of the sentence plays the role in this. Can you explain this as well. Thanks.

Hi Pavan,
For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with high energy feed and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing an average of 2275 gallons of milk each year.

Since the meaning of this sentence is not too difficult to understand, let us get to error analysis. I would just like to add here that this question pertains more to parallelism and verb-tense rather than verb-ing modifiers.

1. Verb-ing modifiers do not make sense in this sentence because the farmers do not provide the cows with high energy feed and milk them to keep them cool. These verb-ing modifiers do not make sense to present additional information. Also, they cannot provide the results of the preceding clause. Doing so will make the sentence illogical. So use of verb-ing modifiers is incorrect here.

2. This part is very unusual of official questions, but we have this one off-beat parallel list here. The farmers takes care:
a. To keep them cool
b. To keep them provided with high energy feed, and
c. To keep them milked regularly.

This list could be made simple by saying farmers take care to keep them cool, provide them with high energy feed, and milk them regularly. But the author has decided to make it complicated so let’s keep it that way.
So certainly, the entities in the list are not parallel.

3. Usage of present continuous “are producing” is incorrect here.

Now let’s do the POE:

A. providing them with high energy feed and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

B. providing them with high energy feed , and milked regularly, the Holstein cow produces: Incorrect.
1. Verb-ing “providing” makes the list non-parallel.
2. Singular “cow” cannot refer to plural pronoun “them”.
3. The sentence is talking about general Holstein cows and not a particular Holstein cow. So “the Holstein cow” is incorrect and subsequently the verb used for this subject too.

C. provided with high energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing: Incorrect.
1. Verb-ing “milking” makes the list non-parallel.
2. Present continuous “are producing” is incorrect.

D. provided with high energy feed, and milked regularly, the Holstein cow produces: Incorrect. Same pronoun-antecedent number agreement error as in choice B.

E. provided with high energy feed ,and milked regularly, Holstein cows will produce: Correct. Notice that this sentence is in “if… then…” construction, and hence use of “will produce” is correct.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2013, 09:23
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I have a doubt in the below question (OG 13 #97)
Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"—at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

In the underlined part of the above sentence, “greatly reducing ….numbers” seems to present the result of the preceding clause “…ancestors suffered an event”. But the subject of the clause “ancestors” does not do the action of reducing, the action is caused by the “event”. So the subject does not make sense with the verb-ing modifier here. Thus the sentence is wrong. Can you please tell me whether my thinking is in the right direction as far as modifiers are concerned?

Also, can you please give the rule set for the punctuation dash(-).

Thanks,

Sarmistha

Hi Sarmistha,

Yes, your analysis of this sentence is absolutely correct. The verb-ing modifier "resulting" does not make sense with the subject of the modified the clause "our ancestors". This is the reason why choice A is incorrect.

Now, use of "dash" is a bit different in this sentence than its usual usage. Generally, on GMAT "dash" connects two Independent Clauses. But in this sentence, we do not see that construction. So here I would say that "dash" has been used in a little different way than it is generally used.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2014, 15:03
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Nitinaka19 wrote:

Mine query is related to OG-12, #38, Please find the question below.

In 1850 Lucretia Mott published her Discourse on Women, arguing in a treatise for women to have equal political and legal rights and for changes in the married women’s property laws.

A. arguing in a treatise for women to have equal political and legal rights
B. arguing in a treatise for equal political and legal rights for women
C. a treatise that advocates women’s equal political and legal rights
D. a treatise advocating women’s equal political and legal rights
E. a treatise that argued for equal political and legal rights for women

Between A & E, there is only a change in a modifier, could you please elaborate why B is wrong,
i think publishing a book and then the modifier "arguing" can be treated as one of the outcomes or the motive behind publication. Please correct me if i'm wrong?

Thanks

Hi Nitinaka19,

Analysis of Choice A: The sentence tells us that Lucretia Mott published "Discourse on Women". Then we have a Comma + Verb-ing "arguing..." that modifies the preceding action. Now Comma + Verb-ing modifiers perform two functions:

1. presents the "HOW" aspect of the preceding action - In this scenario it does not make sense to say that Mott published "Discourse on Women" by arguing... for women...".
2. presents the "RESULT" of the preceding action - Even this function doe snot make sense because "arguing for women rights" was not the result of publishing "Discourse on Women".

Also, this choice fails to establish that actually "Discourse on Women" is the treatise that Mott published. The phrase "in a treatise" suggests that Mott argued for women rights in some treatise other than "Discourse on Women".

Analysis of Choice E: This choice employs Noun + Noun Modifier that can refer to any entity in the preceding clause. Here, "a treatise" = Noun and "that argued for..." = Noun Modifier. Together this Noun + Noun Modifier modifies "Discourse on Women". It gives more information about this entity. So "Discourse on Women" is a treatise that did something. This Choice CLEARLY communicates the meaning of the sentence. Hence, Choice E is the correct answer.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2012, 19:38
That is pretty useful!
Am attaching CR bible, it is the best one for CR
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2012, 12:13
E-Gmat... a wonderful article.
Things are crystal clear now.

i think i am going to need your constant help in verbal.i have scheduled my test in mid Aug. VA is my weakest area. i am constantly scoring 20-25 in VA unlike Q(47-50).
can i have your expert advice how to enhance my VA score to 40-43.i really need to have a score anything above 720.
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Last edited by 321kumarsushant on 05 Jul 2012, 14:44, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2012, 12:25
forgot to kudos you for such a detailed article. now done
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2012, 17:58
Dear 321kumarsushant,

Thanks for the praise. I would recommend that you try the e-GMAT course for verbal. We offer a very generous free trial. Take the trial and purchase the course if needed. We have have helped over 1000 students in the last 12 months excel on verbal. You can read the success stories either on GMATClub or search the web. Click the link below to register:

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Here is the story of a guy who improved by 9 points in 10 days.

http://youtu.be/8nH2XaBOJk4

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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2012, 20:35
e gmat offer great article of verb-ing. In this case, I want to discuss about the problem of TO DO VS FOR DOING

In many og questions, I see gmat forces us to choose between TO DO and FOR DOING. TO DO is used to show a purpose and FOR DOING is not used to show a purpose. However, in many cases, FOR DOING is correct. I am confused.

e-gmat experts, plsease, explain more of this problem.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2012, 22:15
Sure, we would be happy to add some content here. Can you provide the OG examples where the same is tested. Then we would be happy to write the article.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2012, 17:27
Thank you, but I am still confused.

Can I think that
"for doing" in D modifies "support" and is logic
and
"to do" in E modified "provide" and is not logic

Pls, help explain of why D is wrong? Thank you very much.
Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1   [#permalink] 06 Jul 2012, 17:27

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