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# vague laws

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Manager
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vague laws [#permalink]  13 Oct 2005, 16:32
Vague laws set vague limits on people's freedom, which makes it impossible for them to know for certain whether their actions are legal. Thus, under vague laws , pple cannot feel secure.

Conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?
(a) Pple can feel secure only if they know for certain that their actions are legal
(b) If pple do not know for certain whether their actions are legal, they might not feel secure
(c) If pple know for certain that their actions are legal, they can feel secure
(d) Pple can feel secure if they are governed by laws that are not vague
(e) Only pple who feel secure can know for certain whether their actions are legal
Director
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My choice is A.
A, along with the fact that people don't know if their actions are legal (under vague laws) forms the proper basis for the conclusion reached.

B - "might not feel secure" cannot lead to a conclusion "cannot feel secured"
Manager
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I would go for C
Senior Manager
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Re: vague laws [#permalink]  14 Oct 2005, 00:32
I would pick A.
Manager
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go A go...
Director
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can some one explain the difference between C and A. I am confused.
Intern
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i would go for B
Manager
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OA is A.

I believe this qn is testing our understanding of necessary and sufficient conditions.

A necessary condition is an event whose occurrence is required in order for a sufficient condition to occur. A sufficient condition is an event whose occurrence indicates that the necessary condition must have occurred.

The dif between A and C:
In A, the clause "they know for certain that their actions are legal " is a necessary condition because it was preceded by "only if". The clause "Pple can feel secure" is a sufficient condition.

In C, the reverse is the case. The clause "Pple can feel secure" is necessary condition. The clause "pple know for certain that their actions are legal" is the sufficient condition because it was preceded by "if".

A and C do not mean the same. In fact, C is a mistaken reversal of A.

A qn: Does the qn stem mean that pple cannot feel secure" is the necessary condition and "vague laws" is the sufficient condition? If so, the contrapositive (opposite of statement) is A , which should then be the correct answer.
Manager
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Re: [#permalink]  24 Oct 2008, 12:03
ronybtl wrote:
OA is A.

I believe this qn is testing our understanding of necessary and sufficient conditions.

A necessary condition is an event whose occurrence is required in order for a sufficient condition to occur. A sufficient condition is an event whose occurrence indicates that the necessary condition must have occurred.

The dif between A and C:
In A, the clause "they know for certain that their actions are legal " is a necessary condition because it was preceded by "only if". The clause "Pple can feel secure" is a sufficient condition.

In C, the reverse is the case. The clause "Pple can feel secure" is necessary condition. The clause "pple know for certain that their actions are legal" is the sufficient condition because it was preceded by "if".

A and C do not mean the same. In fact, C is a mistaken reversal of A.

A qn: Does the qn stem mean that pple cannot feel secure" is the necessary condition and "vague laws" is the sufficient condition? If so, the contrapositive (opposite of statement) is A , which should then be the correct answer.

i can not see the difference between A and C as well.

in your explanation you say that in A the clause "they know for certain that their actions are legal " is Necessary Condition because it has "only if", but in C you say that a clause "Pple can feel secure" is a Sufficient Condition even though it is preceded by "if".

Does someone else understand the difference between A and C?
Manager
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Re: vague laws [#permalink]  26 Oct 2008, 23:05
Keep in mind that this is an LSAT question. Questions such as this are rare on the GMAT.

ronybtl is correct about necessary and sufficient, and about answer choices A and C. The difference between A and C is the difference between "if" and "only if". Choice C says that IF people know that their actions are legal, THEN they can feel secure. It's a normal "if-then" statement.

Choice A is not written as a normal "if-then": It says that people can feel secure ONLY IF they know that their actions are legal. The only way to translate this into "if-then" is to change "only if" to "then", NOT TO "IF". In other words, "A only if B" translates to "If A then B", NOT to "If B then A". Therefore, choice A is actually saying that IF people feel secure, THEN it must be true that they know that their actions are legal. This is the converse of Choice C, and it does NOT mean the same thing as C.

Note to ronybtl on the question stem: The missing ASSUMPTION is that IF people do not know whether their actions are legal, then they canNOT feel secure. In other words, NOT knowing whether their actions are legal is SUFFICIENT to cause people to NOT feel secure. The contrapositive of this assumption is of course A, as you suggested.
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Grumpy

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Re: vague laws   [#permalink] 26 Oct 2008, 23:05
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